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New France • Early 1600’s • France • Near Quebec • Fur and fish trading • Missionary • Person who teachers their religion to others who have different beliefs
Symbols of New France in Canada Today The white Bourbon Flag (flag of the Royal House of France) of New France Flag of Quebec Stylized Flower becomes a symbol of French Kings IRIS FLOWER Canadian Coat of Arms
French Exploration • In 1524, France sent Giovanni Verrazano to find the Northwest Passage to Asia. • He discovered that North America was not an archipelago of islands, but a continent.
Jacques Cartier • In 1534, France sent Jacques Cartier to find the Northwest Passage. • He reached the Gaspé Peninsula, which he claimed for France. • He also kidnapped two Iroquoians, Taignoagny and Domagaya, and brought them back to France to learn French so that they could guide him when they returned.
Cartier’s Second Voyage • The next year, Cartier arrived in “Canada”, an Iroquoian word meaning village that Cartier thought was the name of the area around the St. Lawrence. • He explored the St. Lawrence River, visiting Stadacona and Hochelaga. • The rapids west of Hochelaga, which he named “La Chine” (China), prevented him from travelling further.
Cartier fails • Cartier’s men spent the winter at Stadacona, where 25 men died of scurvy. • Donnacona, the chief of Stadacona, showed Cartier how to make Vitamin C-rich tea from spruce bark and needles, saving many lives. • To thank him, Cartier kidnapped Donnacona and took him to France, where Donnacona died. • As a result, the Iroquois refused to trade with the French, and Cartier’s colony failed. • The French would not try to settle in North America for another sixty years.
Early French settlements • In 1600, Pierre de Chauvin and François Gravé established a French fur trading post at Tadoussac. • In 1603, Pierre Du Gua de Monts founded a settlement at Port Royal (present day Nova Scotia).
Samuel de Champlain • The settlement failed in 1607 when de Monts lost his royal fur trading license. • In 1608, de Monts’ assistant, Samuel de Champlain, founded a colony in Quebec City.
SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN • 1567 – 1635 • Skilled Geographer and Cartographer • Believed in colonization when the French were only interested in trade and making a profit • Forged relationships with the Mi’kmaq and Huron peoples
ACADIA • Modern day Nova Scotia and surrounding area • Situated in an attractive location for a permanent trading post • Had a deep enough harbour for ships • Very fertile farm land • Defendable against attack
ACADIA • In 1604, Champlain set up a settlement there • Unusually harsh winter that year • Settlers suffered from scurvy (lack of vitamin C) • Nearly half of the settlement died that winter • Colony was moved further inland • French claims on Acadia did not stop
Quebec • Founded July 3, 1608 by Champlain • One of oldest European settlements in N.A. • At the spot where 2 waterways meet: • The St. Lawrence • The Saint-Charles River • In this period, these rivers are the only means of transportation
Quebec • Quebec is situated on a 90 m high cliff over the St. Lawrence (Upper Town is 90m, Lower Town meets the water) • The St. Lawrence narrows in front of Quebec • This is why the natives called the place “Kenebec,” which means “narrow passage.” • This makes it easier to see enemy boats if you are posted at the top of the cliff
Huron Alliance Huron peoples became allies with the French Huron traded farm produce to aboriginal hunters for furs Huron then traded furs to the French for European goods Champlain allied with the Huron and helped them attack and defeat the Iroquois in 1609 at the battle of Ticonderoga Point south of Quebec Iroquois had no guns during this battle 3 Iroquois chiefs were “picked off” by French muskets
Alliances with First Nations • Champlain made alliances with the Algonquins and Montagnais that lived near Quebec, as well as with the Wendat, whom the French called “Hurons”, and who controlled most of the territory around the Great Lakes. • Champlain sent “coureurs de bois” like Étienne Brulé to live with the Wendat, trade with them, marry their women and explore their territory. • In addition to the coureurs de bois, the French also sent Jesuit missionaries to live with the Hurons. • The Hurons did not want the missionaries, but the French made this a condition of trading.
The Fur Trade Huron and Iroquois had wars over the fur trade Iroquois acquired guns from the Dutch Huron acquired guns from the French
The Fur Trade Fashion trend in Europe in the late 1500s – beaver skin hats Felt from beaver skin could be moulded into many different shapes Beaver hats were purchased well into the 1800s The beaver became a cultural symbol of Canadian heritage and was immortalized on the 5 cent piece
The Company of 100 Associates Cardinal Richelieu of France wants to settle New France with settlers and to convert the Aboriginal people to Catholicism Company founded in 1627 consisting of 100 investors Company was given seigneurial ownership of New France and exclusive trading rights for furs Company had to bring 200-300 settlers to New France in 1628 4000 more Roman Catholics were to be brought over in the next 15 years. No Protestant settlers were allowed.
The Seigneurial System Land in New France divided into narrow strips along St. Lawrence River Land belonged to King of France Land maintained by landlord or “Seigneur” Landlord’s tenants (Habitants) worked the land and paid taxes to the Seigneur Seigneurs never really owned the land They were responsible for building roads and mills for the King (work done by the Habitants) System was unsuccessful at bringing in substantial settlement
Huron-Iroquois Wars • Exposure to European diseases such as measles and smallpox reduced the Hurons’ population from 40,000 to 12,000 between 1634-1640. • The Hurons were further weakened by divisions between Christian and non-Christian Hurons, and addiction to alcohol introduced by French traders. • In wars over fur trading territories, the Hurons were easily defeated by the Iroquois, who were armed with muskets acquired from their Dutch allies. • Surviving Hurons abandoned their territory and relocated to Wendake, near Quebec City.
Colonization of New France • In 1627, control of New France was given to the Company of a Hundred Associates. • The company set up seigneuries along the St. Lawrence River, feudal-style manors given to settlers. • Peasant farmers who lived on the seigneuries were known as “habitants”. • Montréal was founded in 1642 by the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal, as a Catholic mission originally known as Ville-Marie.
A Royal Colony • In 1660, the company lost its trading monopoly, and New France became a royal colony. • The first administrator was Jean Talon. • He brought hundred of young women, known as “filles du roi” from France to marry the mostly male settlers.
Continued Exploration • The French continued to explore the North American interior: in the 1650s Pierre Radisson and Médart de Groseilliers explored the Western Great Lakes.
Along the Mississippi • In the 1670s traders such as Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette began exploring the territory along the Ohio, Illinois and Mississippi rivers. • René Robert Cavalier de la Salle was the first European to reach the mouth of the Mississippi River in the Gulf of Mexico in 1782.
The Great Peace of Montreal • For most of the seventeenth century, New France was at war with the Five Nations Confederacy of the Iroquois. • The Five Nations were the most powerful First Nations in the St. Lawrence/Great Lakes region, and were allied with the Dutch and later the English. • In the 1670s and 1680s the French negotiated treaties with the Five Nations’ enemies to the west, such as the Miami and the Illinois. • In 1701, over 1300 delegates representing 40 nations, including the Five Nations and the French, signed a peace treaty in Montreal.
French-English Wars • The French and English fought four wars in North America. • From 1689-1697, King William’s War was fought between the French, English and their First Nation allies in Canada, Acadia and New England. • From 1704-1713 the French and their Spanish allies in Florida fought against the British in a war from Newfoundland to Florida. • In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht gave the British control of Acadia.
The Expulsion of the Acadians • After the British conquered Acadia in 1713, the Acadians refused to sign an oath of loyalty to Britain, but they promised to remain neutral in the event of war. • In 1755, following the outbreak of the Seven Years War, the British decided to expel the Acadians.
Le Grand Dérangement • 11,500 Acadians were deported (3/4 of the Acadian population of Nova Scotia), and one-third died at sea. • The rest settled in the Thirteen Colonies, France and England, and many eventually made their way to Louisiana, where they became known as “Cajuns”.
The Seven Years War • King George’s War: fought between Britain and France, 1744-1748. • In 1755, the Seven Years War began as a result of conflict over the Ohio Valley. • In 1758, the British under Gen. Wolfe captured the fortress of Louisbourg, which allowed British ships to enter the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
The Conquest of New France • In 1760, the British and French armies met on the Plains of Abraham. • Both Wolfe and the French General Montcalm were killed in the battle. • The British won, and Quebec surrendered. • Montréal was captured the same year. • The Treaty of Paris in 1763 declared New France to be a British possession.