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Earth and Space Spring Final Review: 2013. Of what material is the oceanic crust mostly composed? ANS: Basalt Of what material is the continental crust mostly composed? ANS: Granite. What evidence was there for the early supporters of continental drift hypothesis?

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Earth and Space Spring Final

Review: 2013

  • Of what material is the oceanic crust mostly composed?
    • ANS: Basalt
    • Of what material is the continental crust mostly composed?
    • ANS: Granite

What evidence was there for the early supporters of continental drift hypothesis?

ANS: Similar fossils; the puzzle fit of the continents; Similar rock types on continents

Subduction zones occur along what type of plate boundary?

ANS: Convergent

Seismic activity maps, such as the one above, are most helpful in locating what?

ANS: lithospheric plate boundaries


Use the following list to answer the questions below…please note, some answers may be used more than once, and some questions may have more than one answer.

Divergent boundaries Convergent boundaries

Constructive boundaries Destructive boundaries

Transform boundaries

6. Place where new oceanic crust forms

ANS: Divergent boundaries; Constructive boundaries

Place near which volcanic mountain chains form

ANS: Convergent boundaries; Destructive boundaries


8. How do geologic hot spots, such as the one beneath the Hawaiian Island chain, form?

ANS: columns of super-heated material arise from the outer core, up through the mantle, in a convection current.

9. How are CO2 levels in our atmosphere influenced by tectonic activity?

ANS: Volcanic outgassing adds CO2

10. Name a process that removes CO2 from the atmosphere.

ANS: Photosynthesis; Acid rain formation


11. Why is the Atlantic saltier than the Pacific?

ANS: When the Isthmus of Panama formed 3 mya, it cut off the current that flowed from Pacific to Atlantic at that time. This increased the strength of the Gulf Stream, an oceanic current that carries warm tropical waters northward along the east coast of N. America and even Europe. This warm current causes increased evaporation of water in the Atlantic, leaving the salt behind, rendering it saltier. Increased evaporation of warm water is carried across the isthmus of Panama with a strong easterly current known as the Trade Winds. This causes increased precipitation in the Pacific, which renders it more dilute (less salty).

What type of fault is caused by compressional forces, pushing two blocks together?

ANS: a normal fault

13. In a simple fold, the trough is known as what?

ANS: Syncline


14. What type of orogeny (mountains) are built when two continents of relatively equal density collide due to plate convergence?

ANS: Folded Mountains

Use the list below and match them to the correct statement

Landmass accretion Tectonic accretion Anticline Recumbent

Pangaea Rodinia

15. When an island arc is pushed into a continent

16. Supercontinent when only life was bacteria

17. Sediment added along a river bank

18. When folded rocks are upended

19. The crest of a simple fold

20. Made up of Gondwana and Laurasia

Tectonic Accretion


Landmass accretion





Use the following list and match them to the statements below:

Topographic Map Satellite Imagery Aerial Photography Geologic Map

21. A way to study Earth’s surface using images taken in space

ANS: Satellite Imagery

22. Can be remotely operated, or manned.

ANS: Aerial Photography

23. A way to map the Earth’s surface that tells a little something about the bedrock

ANS: Geologic Map

24. Has contour lines indicating elevation

ANS: Topographic Map


25. A simple fold is also known as what?

ANS: Monocline

26. When a resource is in plentiful supply and has an unlimited nature, it is known as…?

ANS: Inexhaustible resource

Coal, oil and natural gas are our fossil fuels. By nature, they are limited…and known as…?

ANS: non-renewable resources

28. Resources like trees, and food, which can be replenished are known as…?

ANS: Renewable resources


29. Water pollution affects which subsystem most?

ANS: hydrosphere

30. When more CO2 is produced (a greenhouse gas) via volcanic outgassing, and increased burning of fossil fuels, which subsystem is affected most?

ANS: Atmosphere

31. When mountains form, they increase the force applied by the continent to the mantle. What is this called?

ANS: Isostasy


32. Why is the oceanic crust at the bottom of the ocean, while the continental crust is above?

ANS: The oceanic crust is both thinner and more dense than the continental crust.

33. What is the difference between weathering and erosion?

ANS: Weathering breaks down rocks either through chemical action, or physical action. Once the rock is broken down, it may be carried away due to gravity by erosion.

34. When rock is altered at the molecular level, what type of weathering has occurred?

ANS: Chemical weathering


35. Correctly label each layer:



A: Inner Core

B: Outer Core

C: Mantle

D: Crust




36. In the hydrologic cycle, when water moves down through the soil, what process has occurred?

ANS: Infiltration


37. The process that plants contribute to the hydrologic cycle, and has a great influence on the atmosphere is known as…

ANS: Transpiration

38. Trade winds blow in which direction?

ANS: From east, to west

39. Calculate the contour interval if one line is at 3,000 feet, and another is at 3,400 feet, and there are 20 contours crossing between them?

ANS: 3,400-3,000 = 400 = 20 feet

20 20


Use the following list and match them to the words/phrases below:

Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere Cryosphere

40. Most influenced by burning of fossil fuels

ANS: Atmosphere

41. Contains CO2 dissolved in magma

ANS: Lithosphere

42. Only ice can be found here

ANS: Cryosphere

43. Can be influenced by volcanoes nearby, which give off sulfur compounds causing strong acids to form.

ANS: Hydrosphere

44. Subsystem which contains process that takes in CO2 to obtain energy.

ANS: Biosphere (process, photosynthesis)


The island nation of Japan has moved 600 km from its original location, some 5,000,000 years ago. Determine the rate that the Pacific Plate is moving in cm/year, given that information.

First, you know that it has moved 600 km/5,000,000 years. This is already a rate, but you just need to reduce the fraction. Let’s start with getting rid of some 0s. The above fraction is the same as 6/50,000. All I did was take the two 0s away.

Then, you need to do the math: 6÷50,000 is .00012. This is how far Japan will move in one year…in km. Now, we need to convert .00012 to cm, like the answer calls for. Remember this:

K H D M . d c m

So to convert Km to cm, you must move the decimal 5 places to the right. That would mean, that the Pacific Plate is moving

12 cm/year.