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Earth and Space Science MCT Review. Objectives 4.a.-4.h. Objective 4.a. Compare and contrast the lithosphere and the asthenosphere . Advanced – 4a. Explain how the composition of the lithosphere and asthenosphere affects plate movement. Structure of the Earth. Inner Core

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Objective 4 a
Objective 4.a.

  • Compare and contrast the lithosphere and the asthenosphere.

  • Advanced – 4a. Explain how the composition of the lithosphere and asthenosphere affects plate movement.

Structure of the earth
Structure of the Earth

  • Inner Core

    • Solid iron and nickel core

    • Temperatures at 6000°C

    • Although temperatures are hot, it is solid due to great pressure from the above layers

  • Outer Core

    • Molten (liquid) iron and nickel


  • Solid layer of hot rock

    • Flows like a liquid because of tremendous heat and pressure.

  • Plastic-likemeans that the consistency of the rock is flowing but it is not a liquid

  • The asthenosphere is the mechanically weak deforming region of the upper mantle that is ductile, plastic, and free-flowing.


  • Solid, rocky outer layer of Earth

    • Crust is thinner below the oceans than below continents.

  • Lithosphere is the outermost shell of the planet that floats on top of the asthenosphere

    • Divided into plates that include ocean floor and land.

Objective 4 b
Objective 4.b.

  • Describe the cause and effect relationship between the composition of and movement within the Earth’s lithosphere.

Continental drift theory
Continental Drift Theory

  • Earth’s continents were once joined in a single large landmass called Pangaea that broke apart

  • Continents have drifted to their current location

Theory of plate tectonics
Theory of Plate Tectonics

  • Crust rides on top of the plates

  • Plates ride on top of mantle which is in motion due to convection currents.

Two types of lithospheric plates
Two Types of Lithospheric Plates

  • Continental Crust: made of rocks that are less dense and ride higher on the mantle than oceanic crust.

  • Oceanic Crust: rocks that are more dense and ride lower on the mantle than continental crust.

Plate boundaries
Plate Boundaries

  • Movement of Earth plates are responsible for most major geological events and landforms

    • Volcanoes, earthquakes, mountain formation

Convergent plate boundaries
Convergent Plate Boundaries

  • Boundaries that form when 2 plates collide or come together

Oceanic continental
Oceanic & Continental

  • The more dense oceanic plate is forced below the less dense continental plate.

    • Oceanic plate melts as it pushes into the mantle forcing hot magma & gas up to the surface

    • Forms a deep-ocean trench & a long chain of continental volcanic mountains

    • The movement of one plate under another is called subduction.

Two continental plates
Two Continental Plates

  • Both plates are less dense than the asthenosphere.

  • Crumple up to form mountain ranges.

  • Earthquakes are very common but not volcanoes.

  • Formed the Himalaya Mountains.

Two oceanic plates
Two Oceanic Plates

  • One plate is forced down into the mantle forming a deep ocean trench that sinks & melts

  • The plate that sinks will melt, form volcanoes, and eventually an island arc.

    • Ex. Japan, Philippines, Marianas Islands

Divergent plate boundaries
Divergent Plate Boundaries

  • Forms when 2 plates move away from each other

    • Most occur on the ocean floor & form undersea mountain ranges called mid-ocean ridges.

      • Ex. Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    • Two divergent continental plates will form a rift valley. Ex: East African Rift

Transform plate boundaries
Transform Plate Boundaries

  • Two plates grind or slide past each other without creating or destroying the lithosphere.

    • Ex. North American & Pacific plates slide past each other in a north-south direction creating earthquakes.

Seismic waves
Seismic Waves

  • Earthquake waves are known as seismic waves & they spread out in all directions from the focus.

  • The epicenter is the spot on Earth’s surface directly above the focus.

Types of seismic waves
Types of Seismic Waves

  • Primary (P)-waves: Travel by stretching & compressing land as they pass (like a slinky)

    • Fastest waves

  • Secondary (S)-waves: move land side to side

    • Only travel through solids

  • Surface waves: move up and down on earth’s surface (like waves on a pond)

    • cause the most damage

Speed of seismic waves
Speed of Seismic Waves

  • Seismic waves move faster through solids than liquids because solids are more dense.

  • For example, waves would move faster through the rocky crust than through the liquid outer core.

Volcanoes and plate boundaries
Volcanoes and Plate Boundaries

  • Volcanoes often form where two oceanic plates collide or where an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate.

Objective 4 c
Objective 4.c.

  • Examine weather forecasting and describe how meteorologists use atmospheric features and technology to predict the weather.

  • Advanced – Predict a change in weather based on differences in pressure, heat, air movement, and humidity.

Types of fronts
Types of Fronts

  • 1. A coldfront forms when a cold air mass pushes under a warm air mass. Cumulonimbus clouds form and thunderstormsmay occur.

  • 2. A warm front forms when a warm air mass moves up and over a cold air mass. Cirrus and stratus clouds form and light, steady precipitation occurs.

Air pressure
Air Pressure

  • High-pressure systemsdevelop when an air mass sinks toward the ground.

  • Causes clear, calm weather.

  • Low-pressure systemsdevelop when an air mass rises.

  • Causes clouds and precipitation

Jet streams
Jet Streams

  • Jet streams are high-speed winds 10-15 km above the Earth’s surface. They form when cold air from the poles meets warm air from near the equator.

Objective 4 h
Objective 4.h.

  • Justify why an imaginary hurricane might or might not hit a particular area, using important technological resources.

What is a hurricane
What is a Hurricane?

  • A hurricane is a low-pressure system that forms over tropical oceans.

Paths of hurricanes
Paths of Hurricanes

  • Trade winds cause hurricanes to move east to west near the equator.

  • As hurricanes move north, they begin to turn back to the eastbecause of westerlies.

Strength of hurricanes
Strength of Hurricanes

  • Hurricanes weaken as they move over cooler water or land.

  • Lower air pressure = faster wind speeds.

Objective 4 d
Objective 4.d.

  • Research the importance of the conservation of renewable and nonrenewable resources, and justify methods that might be useful in decreasing the human impact on global warming.

Two types of resources
Two Types of Resources

  • Renewableresources are resources that are constantly being recycled or replaced by nature. For example, sunlight, water, and air.

  • Nonrenewable resources are resources that are used up more quickly than they are replaced. For example, minerals and metals.

Ways to conserve energy
Ways to Conserve Energy

  • 1. Turn off lights when not in use.

  • 2. Car pool or use public transportation.

  • 3. Walk or ride a bike.

  • 4. Use energy efficient appliances or bulbs.

  • What are some other ways to conserve energy?

Alternatives to fossil fuels
Alternatives to Fossil Fuels

  • Hydroelectric

  • Solar

  • Geothermal

  • Biomass

  • Nuclear (uranium)

  • Wind

  • Most alternatives are more expensive than fossil fuels.

The nitrogen cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle

  • In the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen moves from the air to the soil, into living things, and back into the air.

  • The nitrogen cycle is necessary for organisms to make amino acids and proteins.

Greenhouse effect
Greenhouse Effect

  • The greenhouse effect is the natural trapping of the Sun’s heat by the Earth’s atmosphere. Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane.

Global warming
Global Warming

  • As more CO2 is added, the atmosphere traps more heat, causing global warming.

Objective 4 e
Objective 4.e

  • Explain how the tilt of Earth’s axis and the position of the Earth in relation to the sun determine climatic zones, seasons, and length of the days.

Revolution of earth
Revolution of Earth

  • Earth revolves around the Sun over a period of 365 ¼ days.

    • Earth’s orbit is elliptical. Earth is closer to the Sun in January than in July.

    • The axis is tilted 23 ½ degrees.

    • The axis is always pointed in the same direction.

Objective 4 f
Objective 4. f.

  • Describe the hierarchical structure (stars, clusters, galaxies, galactic clusters) of the universe and examine the expanding universe to include its age and history and the modern techniques (e.g., radio, infrared, ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy) used to measure objects and distances in the universe.

Structure of the universe
Structure of the universe

  • The universeis all space, matter, and energy that exists

  • Stars group together in clusters.

  • Clusters group together in galaxies.

  • Galaxies group together in groups.

  • Galaxy groups group together in super-clusters.

Galaxy groups
Galaxy Groups

  • The Milky Way (our galaxy) is located in the Local Group.

  • The Local Group contains 36 galaxies.

  • The Local Group is part of the Virgo Supercluster (at least 100 galaxies).

The expanding universe
The Expanding Universe

  • Red Shift: occurs when a star or other object is moving away from Earth (farther)

  • Blue Shift: occurs when a star or other object is moving toward Earth (nearer)

  • All distant galaxies are moving rapidly away from our galaxy and from each other.

Radiation from stars
Radiation from Stars

  • Stars give off radiation of all wavelengths.

  • Wavelength of radiation can indicate the star’s temperature.

  • Higher temperatures=higher energy stars= shorter wavelengths. (gamma and X-rays)

Objective 4 g
Objective 4.g.

  • Justify the importance of continued research and use of new technology in the development and commercialization of potentially useful natural products, including, but not limited to research efforts in Mississippi.

Natural products
Natural Products

  • Natural products include any useful substance made by a living organism.

  • Examples: medicines made from plants, antibiotics made from mold, improving crops using wild plants