The Industrial Revolution
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The Industrial Revolution. 1700 - 1850. 1804 - Trevithick - steam locomotive. 1769 - Watt - steam engine. 1721 - Tull - seed drill. 1785 - Cartwright - power loom. 1764 -Hargreaves - spinning jenny. 1769 -Arkwright -water frame. 1793 - Whitney - cotton gin. 1733 -Kay - flying shuttle.

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The industrial revolution

1804 - Trevithick - steam locomotive

1769 - Watt - steam engine

1721 - Tull - seed drill

1785 - Cartwright - power loom

1764 -Hargreaves - spinning jenny

1769 -Arkwright -water frame

1793 - Whitney - cotton gin

1733 -Kay - flying shuttle

1779 - Crompton - spinning mule


The industrial revolution

FACTORS AIDING INDUSTRIAL GROWTH

  • CHANGES IN FARMING

  • RISE IN POPULATION

  • GEOGRAPHIC ADVANTAGES

  • NEW INVENTIONS


The industrial revolution

CHANGES IN FARMING

1700 – Agricultural revolution begins before Industrial Revolution

The wealthy buy much of the land

Landowners rent fields to tenant farmers

Tenant farmers – one who farms another's land and pays rent, usually in a share of the crops.

Landowners began fencing or hedging their land. This process is called enclosure.

Landowners free to experiment.


The industrial revolution

Scientific Revolution meets Agricultural Revolution

  • Landowners needed new ways to increase the harvest.

  • Jethro Tull was one of the first scientific farmers.

  • In 1721, he invented a seed drill.

  • A seed drill allowed well spaced rows at a specific depth.


The industrial revolution

Scientific Revolution meets Agricultural Revolution

Scientific farmers began to use crop rotation. This is a system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land.

This practice began in the middle ages but was perfected by gentleman farmer Viscount Charles Townshend.

Raising livestock was also improved.

Only the best animals were allowed to breed.


The industrial revolution

RISE IN POPULATION

Better livestock and rising crop production meant more food.

During the 1700’s the population of Europe increased rapidly.

The reasons for the growth were improved health and increased

food supplies.

The growth in population increased the need for food.

However, this growth supplied the extra workers needed in the factories.


The industrial revolution

GEOGRAPHIC ADVANTAGES

Great Britain had all of the factors needed to be a successful industrialized nation.

Abundant natural resources

Favorable geography

Favorable climate for new ideas

Effective banking system

Politically stable


The industrial revolution

Abundant Natural Resources

Industrialized countries needed 3 important natural resources:

Water-power

Coal

Iron Ore

Water and coal supplied the energy for the machines.

Iron ore was needed to build machines, tools, and buildings.


The industrial revolution

Favorable Geography

Britain is an island nation.

She had many fine harbors and 6,000 merchant ships.

These ships sailed to every part of the globe.

Overseas trade gave Britain access to raw materials and markets.


The industrial revolution

Favorable Climate For New Ideas

The British were interested in science and technology.

They founded the Royal Society.

Royal Society – world famous “club” for exchanging ideas and inventions.

The wealthy British invested in new inventions.


The industrial revolution

Effective Banking System

Great Britain had the most highly developed banking system in Europe.

The service of making loans was very important during this time period.

Loaning money at a reasonable interest rate encouraged people to invest in new inventions.


The industrial revolution

Politically Stable

The British lived in a century of peace.

Freedom from the expense of war allowed them to concentrate their money on new technology.

Their government favored economic growth.

It passed laws supporting and encouraging new investments.


The industrial revolution

Inventions Revolutionized the Textile Industry

  • Britain became a world leader in raising sheep

  • Wool became a major trading product

  • Cotton becomes popular for lighter weight clothing

  • Cloth made at home in cottage industries

  • Work was done by hand on spinning wheels and

  • looms


The industrial revolution

One Invention leads to Another

  • Six Major Inventions Change the Cotton Industry

    • John Kay - Flying Shuttle

    • James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny

    • Richard Arkwright - Water Frame

    • Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule

    • Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom

    • Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin


The industrial revolution

John Kay’s Flying Shuttle

  • The Flying Shuttle was invented in 1733

  • The Flying Shuttle was a piece of wood that held yarn

  • The shuttle was woven in and out of the yarn tied to the

  • loom

  • It allowed the weaver to work twice as fast


The industrial revolution

James Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny

  • The Spinning Jenny was invented in 1764.

  • It was a faster spinning wheel.

  • This machine could spin 80 threads at a time.

  • Humans could spin only 1 thread at a time.

  • This machine was hand operated.


The industrial revolution

Richard Arkwright’s Water Frame

  • Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769.

  • This invention used water power from a fast flowing

  • stream to drive the spinning wheels.


The industrial revolution

Samuel Crompton’s Spinning Mule

  • The Spinning Mule was invented in 1779.

  • This machine combined the Spinning Jenny and the

  • water frame.

  • This machine was used to make stronger, finer thread.


The industrial revolution

Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin

  • The Cotton Gin was invented in 1793.

  • This machine removed seeds from cotton.

  • Prior to this invention, seeds had to be removed by hand.

  • Removing the seeds by hand took a lot of time.

  • The Cotton Gin allowed for the cleaning of 10 times more cotton per day.


The industrial revolution

Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom

  • The Power Loom was invented in 1785.

  • This new loom made weaving much faster.

  • It ran on waterpower.

  • In 1813, 2000 looms were in use in English factories.

  • By 1833, 100,000 looms were in use in England.


The industrial revolution


The industrial revolution

  • Roads

  • A Scottish engineer, John McAdam, invented a better way to build roads.

  • First he layered the roadbed with large rocks.

  • The second phase was to smooth a layer of crushed rock over the first layer.

  • This process was called the “Macadam” surface.


The industrial revolution

  • Canals

  • Canals are human made waterways.

  • Networks of these canals were built in England.

  • Over 4000 miles of inland waterways were constructed.

  • They lowered the cost of transporting raw materials to the

  • factories.


The industrial revolution

  • Railroads

  • The inventors of the railroad locomotive put the steam engine on wheels.

  • 1804 - Richard Trevithick -invented a small powerful steam engine which pulled a cart along tracks.

  • 1821 - George Stephenson built 1st railroad line which was 27 miles long.

  • He called his steam engine the Rocket. It ran 24 miles per hour.


The industrial revolution

  • Far Reaching Effects of the Railroad

  • The railroads encouraged industrial growth.

  • They were a fast, cheap way to transport raw materials and products.

  • The railroads provided new jobs.

  • The railroads boosted agriculture. It was easier to transport goods (milk, fruit, etc.) to distant cities.

  • Railroads made travel easier.


The industrial revolution

  • Industrial Revolution Changed Lives

  • The Industrial Revolution spread to other countries.

  • The growth of factories brought people to the cities.

  • The working conditions in factories began to improve.

  • The middle class social structure grew.

  • Social tensions began to build between the different classes.


The industrial revolution

  • Early looms and spinning wheels ran off of water.

  • Every factory had to be built near rushing water.

  • These locations were often inconvenient.

  • 1763 - James Watt and Matthew Boulton - Scottish entrepreneurs (entrepreneurs organize and take risks in business) who improved the steam engine by using coal to power it


The industrial revolution

Factories Grew Out of Cottage Industries

  • New machines were too large to be used in homes.

  • Wealthy merchants set up machines in large buildings.

  • These large buildings became known as factories.

  • Factory - a large building where goods are made.

  • They ran off of water and were built near streams.

  • Cotton cloth became popular.

  • Most English cotton came from America.

  • Cotton production increased - 1791: 9000 bales 1831: 987,000 bales


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