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Chemical Control: Insecticides. Insecticides are one of the four building blocks of IPM. IPM. Chemical. Biological. Plant resistance. Cultural. Component of pest control since the 1950s. At least 3 million workers poisoned each year 20 000 deaths per year

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Chemical Control: Insecticides


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insecticides are one of the four building blocks of ipm
Insecticides are one of the four building blocks of IPM

IPM

Chemical

Biological

Plant resistance

Cultural

not a perfect solution
At least 3 million workers poisoned each year

20 000 deaths per year

Teratogenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects

Not a perfect solution
public concern about insecticide use
Public concern about Insecticide use

~100% of us have some insecticide residue in our bodies

for the correct use of insecticides we need to consider
For the Correct use of insecticides, we need to consider:

Ease of use

Insecticide resistance

Economics

Safety

Insect behavior

Way of delivery

Ecotoxicological impact

Toxicology

when to apply
When to apply?
  • Thresholds
  • Calendar applications
problems with calendar application approach
Problems with calendar application approach
  • Resistance
  • Secondary pests
  • Destruction of natural enemies
  • Health hazards
  • Environmental hazards
insecticide composition
Insecticide Composition

Insecticide = Active Ingredient + Additives

classes of insecticides
Classes of Insecticides

Botanical Insecticides

  • Sabadilla
  • Nicotine
  • Quassia
  • Unsaturated isobutylamides
  • Ryanodine
  • Naphtoquinones
  • Rotenone
  • Sweet flag
  • Marigolds
  • Pyrethrum
  • Azadirachtin
  • Essential oils
  • Botanical insecticides
  • Synthetic Insecticides
  • Organochlorines
  • Organophosphates
  • Carbamates
  • Pyrethroids
  • Neonicotinoids
  • Biorational Formulations
  • Growth regulators
  • Pheromones
  • Microbial formulations
botanical insecticides
Botanical Insecticides
  • Secondary compounds
  • Alkaloids
  • Terpenoids
  • Phenolics
  • Glucosinolates
  • Etc.
reasons for lack of commercial development
Reasons for lack of Commercial Development
  • Perceived as old fashioned
  • Lack of representation on official lists
  • Not as dramatic effects as synthetic insecticides
  • Inactivation by exposure to air and light
  • Problems due to seasonal availability
  • Lack of quantitative information regarding dosages
  • Lack of quantitative information regarding toxicity
synthetic insecticides
Synthetic Insecticides
  • Synthetic Insecticides
  • Organochlorines
  • Organophosphates
  • Carbamates
  • Pyrethroids
  • Neonicotinoids
concerns
Concerns
  • Some are highly persistent in the environment
  • They accumulate in the food chain
  • If release from fats, poisoning or death
  • Some are banned in developed countries
  • Unfortunately, still used in some developing countries
examples
Examples

Carbamates

Organochlorines

- Aldicarb -Carbofuran

- DDT - Endosulfan

- Aldrin - Gamma HCH

- Dieldrin - Gamma BHC

Pyrethroids

  • -Tefluthrin
  • - Deltamethrin
  • - Lambda
  • -cyhalothrin
  • - Permethrin
  • - Cypermethrin

Organophosphates

-Diazinon

-Fenitrothion

-Dichlorvos

-Dimethoate

- Malathion

  • -imidacloprid
  • -nitempyram
  • - acetamiprid
  • - thiamethoxam

Neonicotenoids

biorational formulations
Biorational Formulations
  • Biorational Formulations
  • Growth regulators
  • Pheromones
  • Microbial formulations
slide22

Growth Regulators

  • Interfere with development
  • Disrupt metamorphosis and reproduction
  • Specific for arthropods
hormones involved
Hormones involved
  • Moulting hormones or ecdysones

- Re-absorption of old cuticle

- Deposition, hardening and tanning of new cuticle

  • Juvenile hormones

- Prevent insect from going to next instar.

concerns25
Concerns
  • Take longerto act than conventional insecticides
  • Ecdysones are expensive
  • Not ideal when larval stages are the pest
examples26
Examples

Juvenile Hormones

- Methoprene

- Tebufenozide

- Fenoxycarb

- Pyriproxifen

Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors

-Diflubenzuron

- Hexaflumuron

- Triflumuron

Triazine Derivatives

-Melamine

- Cryomazine

slide27

Pheromones

  • Mediate intraspecific interactions
  • Around 50 available for IPM
  • Mostly use in association with traps
pheromones uses in ipm
Pheromones Uses in IPM
  • Monitor pest populations
  • Mass trapping
  • Mating Disruption
  • Lure and Kill
slide29

Microbial Formulations

  • Uses bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa and viruses
  • Mostly used as inundative releases
  • Specific for arthropods
increase interest in microbial pest control
Increase interest in Microbial Pest Control
  • Resistance to synthetic insecticides
  • Decrease in discovery of new synthetic insecticides and increase of discovery of microbial novel agents
  • Increase in the perception of risk posed by synthetic insecticides
  • The high host-specificity of microbial pesticides
  • Improvements in the production and formulation of microbial pesticides
  • Relaxation of the regulations governing registration of microbial pesticides
the pesticide treadmill
The Pesticide Treadmill
  • Pest resurgence
  • Secondary pest outbreaks
  • Pesticide resistance
insecticide composition33
Insecticide Composition

Insecticide = Active Ingredient + Additives