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Preview Starting Points Map: Turmoil in Latin America Main Idea / Reading Focus Trends in Latin America The Cuban Revolu PowerPoint Presentation
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Preview Starting Points Map: Turmoil in Latin America Main Idea / Reading Focus Trends in Latin America The Cuban Revolution Other Conflicts. Revolution and Intervention. Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.

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Preview

Starting Points Map: Turmoil in Latin America

Main Idea / Reading Focus

Trends in Latin America

The Cuban Revolution

Other Conflicts

Revolution and Intervention

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Click the icon to play Listen to History audio.

Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.

slide4

Revolution and Intervention

Main Idea

In reaction to economic and social conditions in Latin America after World War II, many Central American countries experienced revolutions that involved intervention by the United States.

  • Reading Focus
  • What were some key economic and social trends in postwar Latin America?
  • How did the Cuban Revolution come about and what changes did it bring?
  • What other revolutions arose in Central America?
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Economic Trends

Industrialization

  • Roots of poverty, inequality go back to history of colonialism
    • Most land, wealth in hands of elite
    • Economies based on agricultural exports
  • To decrease dependence on foreign countries, import-substitution led industrialization policy adopted
  • Local industries developed to replace need to import manufactured goods
  • Dependence on foreign countries remained for investment, technology, loans, military aid
  • Rural land use remained a major issue

Trends in Latin America

After World War II many countries in Latin America struggled to address problems of poverty and inequality.

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Industrialization did not solve land problems

Rural lands

Owned by small group of elites, many with ties to U.S. business interests

Peasants struggled to find land to farm

Addressing the issue

Some countries took land from large landholders, gave to landless peasants

Mixed results, but still major economic trend

Economic Trends

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Social Trends

  • Large gap between rich, poor major social issue
  • Liberation Theology promoted by priests
  • Church should be active in struggle for economic, social equality
  • Criticized by Catholic Church, but popular in Catholic Latin America
  • Cities
  • Unable to make living in rural areas, people flocked to region’s cities
  • Movement caused rapid urbanization
  • Many found life no easier in cities
  • Shortages of food, housing, safe drinking water presented challenges
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Summarize

How did people in Latin America try to deal with some of the region’s economic and social problems?

Answer(s): industrialization, land reform, migration to cities, Liberation Theology movement

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Reasons for Revolt

Rich and Poor

U.S. Support

  • Cuba very dependent on U.S.
  • 1950s, hotels, casinos owned by wealthy Americans, Cuba’s elite
  • U.S. owned sugar, tobacco plantations
  • Valuable exports from plantations
  • Little land for peasants to farm
  • Cuba one of richest Latin American countries
  • Most Cubans could not earn living
  • Business interests encouraged U.S. government support of corrupt dictators
  • Anticommunist Fulgencio Batista took power in 1952 military coup

The Cuban Revolution

In Cuba, social and economic trends led to a revolution. There, social inequality and heavy U.S. influence led to a revolt that brought communism to this large Caribbean island.

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The coming of Castro

Batista’s Cuba

“A rich country with too many poor people”

Batista’s coup stirred discontent, nationalism among poor

Revolutionaries under Castro

Led unsuccessful attack, 1953; guerrilla war became full-scale revolution, 1955

Batista fled 1959; Castro took control

The Cuban Revolution

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Castro’s Programs

Goals of the Revolution

  • Castro focused on ending U.S. dominance, redistributing wealth, reforming society
  • Energies went to restructuring economy, society, government, foreign policy
  • 1961, program virtually eliminated illiteracy in one year
  • Created medical care system, raised life expectancy
  • Broad support for revolution to remove Batista
  • Most did not know what kind of revolution Castro would lead
  • Middle-class Cubans supported moderate democratic reforms
  • Many Castro revolutionaries, including Che Guevara, wanted Marxist regime

The Cuban Revolution

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Changes under Castro

Limited size of landholdings

Nationalized private property, businesses

To ensure he had power to make changes

Took full control of government

Took away freedom of press

Result of radical actions

Led Cuba more toward communism

Led Cuba toward confrontation with U.S.

The Cuban Revolution

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The Cuban Revolution

  • U.S. Involvement
  • Cuba’s move toward communism troubled U.S. leaders
  • Viewed Latin America as part of U.S. sphere of influence
  • Wanted to keep communism out of region
  • Organization of American States
  • Set up shortly after World War II to promote economic, military cooperation
  • 1961, U.S.-trained invasion force of Cuban exiles landed at Bay of Pigs
  • Mission to spark nationwide uprising against Castro; mission failed
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1962, CIA learned Soviet Union building nuclear missile site in Cuba
  • President John Kennedy ordered naval blockage to keep Soviet ships out
  • World came close to nuclear war before compromise, missiles removed
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Economic Effects of Revolution

Results of the Revolution

  • Mixed results as well; economy suffered from U.S. embargo
  • Castro’s policies led many Cubans to leave country, many for U.S.; caused economy to struggle
  • Castro relied on Soviet Union for economic support; Soviet collapse in 1991 hurt economy
  • Mixed results since Cold War; good access to health care, education
  • People’s civil liberties restricted under one-party system
  • Government jails opponents, spies on citizens

The Cuban Revolution

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Identify Cause and Effect

What were some of the causes and effects of the Cuban Revolution?

Answer(s): Causes—social inequality, U.S. influence, revolts; Effects—access to health care and education, but restricted freedom, economy still suffers

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Other Conflicts

  • Causes
  • Economic conditions not only cause of revolutions
  • Political corruption, repression
  • U.S. support for corrupt governments stirred nationalism
  • Guatemala
  • 1952, Guatemalan president Arbenz used land reform to redistribute land to peasants
  • Policy hurt American-owned United Fruit Company
  • U.S. Concerns
  • Pressure from United Fruit Company, concerns over Arbenz’ s leftist leanings
  • U.S. decided to remove from power
  • CIA Intervention
  • Intervened in coup that toppled Arbenz, replaced him
  • Start of repressive dictatorship
  • Civil war raged from 1970s until peace accord of 1996
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Other Revolutions

  • El Salvador
  • Military dictatorships kept power through unfair elections, repression
  • 1980 assassination of Archbishop Oscar Romero, outspoken government critic, sparked bloody civil war between Communist guerillas, army
  • Civil War
  • Peasant villagers often caught in middle
  • Government “death squads” roamed countryside, killed anyone suspected of aiding opposition
  • Reagan Administration
  • Supported Salvadoran government and army
  • Provided money and military aid
  • Violence continued into the 1990s
slide18

Sandinistas

Contras

  • 1979, Somoza forced to flee
  • Sandinistas, revolutionary group took over capital
  • Ruled as junta, group of leaders who rule jointly
  • Launched economic, social reforms
  • Allowed political opposition
  • Reagan administration cut off aid
  • Sandinistas looked to socialist countries for financial aid
  • Contras, U.S.-trained, funded rebel group, began campaign of violence
  • 1984 election kept Sandinistas in power, though violence continued

Other Revolutions

  • Nicaragua
  • Nicaragua struggled with instability
  • Ruled for four decades by Somoza family
  • Wealthy family, controlled about one quarter of country’s farmland
  • Anti-communist views kept them in favor with U.S.
  • Corruption, violent tactics alarmed many Nicaraguans
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Make Generalizations

How did U.S. influence affect conflicts in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua?

Answer(s): civil war, violence, some corrupt leaders overthrown, economic problems, some financial and military aid