Body Blitzan overview of human body systems Most of these slides were created by H. Leonard modified by E. Anderson
What is a system? An organized collection of parts that function together to do something greater than all the separate parts could do. Examples: a toaster, ...
Human Body SystemsTHEDR. I.I.L. MCSNEER WAY Digestive Respiratory Integumentary Immune Lymphatic Muscular Circulatory or Cardiovascular Skeletal Nervous Endocrine Excretory or Urinary Reproductive And Levels of Organization
This slide presentation is meant to help you study the major systems of the human body. You can find a copy in the Human Body Systems section of my website. Use it as an introduction or as a review. Follow the instructions as you move along to explore and learn. You can go through the entire program slide by slide, or skip to focus on any one system. Human Body Systems
http://www.parentingpress.com/pics/sock_cvr.jpg Believe it or not, you are organized!At least your body is. • The main levels of organization are… • Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, and You (the Organism).
How can you access and use this slide presentation? What are the 4levels of organization shown here? 4 1 2 3 Predict the next lower level and the next higher.
Levels of OrganizationThe Human Body has several “layers” of organization beginning with the simplest and becoming more complex. Answers to previous slide: 1cell, 2tissue, 3organ (small intestine), 4organ system. http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/bisci004a/chem/levels.jpg
Here They Are: Your Body Systems (Part 1). Don’t blush; it’s only skin! http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147a.gif (musculoskeletal) (hormone) (cardiovascular)
Your Body Systems (Part 2) http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/lect_19.htm =excretory
1... breaks down food into molecules the body can absorb. 2…passes these molecules into the blood to be carried throughout the body. 3…eliminates solid wastes from the body. Your Digestive System is an efficient disassembly line.
Parts of Your Digestive System mouth What do the parts add up to?
Cross Section of your small intestine The villi add surface area to increase absorption of food and nutrients. On the left you see how the villi line your small intestines, and on the right you see 1 villus with its blood capillaries.
Why is a large surface area important? • Chemistry happens when surfaces contact. • Think of examples.
Where does the gas come from? Web Sources and Resources: http://www.colorado.edu/epob/academics/web_resources/cartoons/gas.html We don’t digest food completely by ourselves. Bacteria and fungi live in our intestines and digest the rest for us, as well as for themselves! (E. coli, for example) These microbes that we depend on have their own wastes, e.g. methane and hydrogen sulfide.
takes in air from outside your body removes some oxygen to give to your body adds carbon dioxide and water (wastes from your body) sends out the altered air This image shows all the tiny bronchioles that increase surface area in the alveoli for gas exchange. Why is high surface area important? C H A S What does your respiratory system do?
mouth and nose trachea bronchi alveoli blood organs blood alveoli bronchi trachea mouth and nose
Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs most commonly caused by a bacteria or virus. Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling vomit or other foreign substances. Respiratory Disease: Pneumonia Web Sources and Resources www.medimagery.com/Respiration/ lungs.html
Effects of smoking: black gummy build-up, increased chance of lung cancer non-smoker smoker There are MANY forms of cancer, some deadly, others not so dangerous. Please note that not all cancers are caused by bad habits.
X-Rays can help detect lung cancer.Surgery, radiation, and drugs (chemotherapy) are some treatments for the disease. Web Sources and Resources www.smm.org/heart/lessons/ lesson11.htm
Please Take Care of Your Lungs and Don’t Smoke Web Sources and Resources: Usborne Science Encyclopedia pgs. and Quicklink Images
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents…Your Integumentary System (It’s Your Skin!)
What does skin do? prevents the loss of water protects the body from injury and infection regulates body temperature eliminates wastes gathers information about the environment produces vitamin D
What is Botox? • a protein from botulism toxin • injected into a muscle to cause temporary (months) paralysis • This helps prevent the appearance of wrinkles.
protects you from foreign invaders Special cells react to each kind of pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at that pathogen. What does your immune system do?What are some of its parts? http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1996/illpres/introduction.html
Your Immune System Has Many Specialized Cells! White blood cells that target specific pathogens are called lymphocytes. There are two major kinds of lymphocytes—T cells and B cells. A major function of T cells is to identify pathogens by recognizing their antigens. Antigens are molecules that the immune system recognizes as either part of your body, or as coming from outside your body. B cells produce chemicals called antibodies.
Our immune system protects us against threats. These include viruses, bacteria and parasites causing infectious diseases, from ordinary flu to full-blown malaria. The white blood cells of the defense system are produced in the marrow of our bones. The cells are carried in the blood to specialized organs, where they develop and communicate to launch immune responses against infections. http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1996/illpres/introduction.html How Your Immune System Works
The Functions of Your Lymphatic System http://www.acm.uiuc.edu/sigbio/project/updated-lymphatic/node_p2.gif Your lymphatic system and the cardiovascular system are closely related structures that are joined by a capillary system. The lymphatic system is important to the body's defense mechanisms. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces certain white blood cells and generates antibodies. It is also important for the distribution of fluids and nutrients in the body, because it drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell up.
Your body has three types of muscle tissue—skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle. What are the types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones of your skeleton. Because you have conscious control of skeletal muscles, they are classified as voluntary muscles. These muscles provide the force that moves your bones. Skeletal muscles react quickly and tire quickly. At the end of a skeletal muscle is a tendon. A tendon is a strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone. Note- ligaments connect bones together. Skeletal Muscle
Smooth muscles are called involuntary muscles because they work with your conscious effort. Smooth Muscle
Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles found only in the heart. Cardiac muscles are strong but do not tire easily. Cardiac Muscle A Cardiac Muscle Cell
The muscles that are under your direct control are called voluntary muscles. Smiling and turning the pages in a book are actions of voluntary muscles. Voluntary Muscles
colon (smooth muscle) heart (special cardiac muscle) both involuntary (automatic) not under your conscious control Involuntary Muscle Action
Muscles work by contracting, or becoming shorter and thicker. Because muscle cells can only contract, not extend, skeletal muscles must work in pairs. While one muscle contracts, the other muscle in the pair returns to its original length. For example, in order to move the lower arm, the biceps muscle on the front of the upper arm contracts to bend the elbow. This lifts the forearm and hand. As the biceps contracts, the triceps on the back of the upper arm returns to its original length. To straighten the elbow, the triceps muscle contracts while the biceps returns to its original length. How Do Muscles Work?