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Human Body Systems. Pre-AP Biology Book: Chapters 35 - 40. Circulatory System. Pre-AP Biology Book: Pages 942 - 955. Function. The Circulatory Systems brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells; fights infections; removes cell wastes; helps to regulates body temperature. Structures.

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human body systems

Human Body Systems

Pre-AP Biology Book: Chapters 35 - 40

circulatory system

Circulatory System

Pre-AP Biology Book: Pages 942 - 955


The Circulatory Systems brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells; fights infections; removes cell wastes; helps to regulates body temperature

  • Heart
    • The pump that keeps blood flowing through your body
  • Blood Vessels
    • Veins
      • Carry blood towards the heart
    • Arteries
      • Carry blood away from the heart
  • Blood
    • Red Blood Cells
      • Carry oxygen to the body cells
    • White blood cells
      • Defend body against disease
    • Platelets
      • Cell fragments needed for blood clotting
    • Plasma
      • Fluid portion of the blood
how does this system relate to others
How Does this System Relate to others?

Connected to almost all other systems. Works very closely with the respiratory system and the immune system.

respiratory system

Respiratory System

Pre-AP Biology Book: Pages 956 - 963


The Respiratory System provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from the body

  • Nose and Mouth
    • Respiration begins with taking in air
  • Pharynx (Throat)
  • Larynx
    • Where your vocal cords are
  • Trachea (Windpipe)
    • Passes air into the bronchi
  • Bronchi (singular: Bronchus)
    • Passes air from trachea to the lungs
  • Bronchioles
    • Each Bronchus in the lungs branches out like a tree into bronchioles
  • Alveoli
    • Sacs at the end of the Bronchioles where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
  • Lungs
  • Diaphragm
    • Muscle that enables you to breathe
how does this system relate to others1
How Does this System Relate to others?
  • Circulatory – brings O2 to the cells and CO2 back to the lungs
  • Excretory – part of the excretory system to get rid of toxic CO2 from the body
digestive system

Digestive System

Pre-AP Biology Book: Pages 978 - 984


The Digestive System converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by cells of the body; absorbs food; eliminates wastes

The entire digestive process takes between 24 and 33 hours

  • Mouth
    • The first stop in the disassembly of your food;

Mechanical digestion = chewing and Chemical digestion = enzymes found in saliva

  • Pharynx (throat)
  • Epiglottis
    • Small flap that closes over the opening of the respiratory system when swallowing, preventing food from entering the airway.
  • Esophagus
    • Muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
  • Liver
    • Produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats
  • Gall Bladder
    • Stores bile produced by the liver
  • Stomach
    • Muscular pouch like organ where involuntary muscular churning and chemical digestion occurs
  • Pancreas
    • Secretes enzymes to help break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats
  • Small Intestine
    • Narrow muscular tube where digestion of food is completed with the help of enzymes secreted by the liver and pancreas
  • Villi (plural: Villus)
    • Little projections in the lining of the small intestine that function in the absorption of digested food
  • Large Intestine (colon)
    • Muscular tube where water and salts are absorbed; material spends 18-24 hours here
  • Appendix
    • Tube like extension off of the large intestine
  • Rectum
    • The last part of the digestive system, feces are eliminated from the rectum through the anus
how does this system relate to others2
How Does this System Relate to others?
  • Muscular – contains smooth muscle
  • Nervous – gets signals that control the rate of digestion
  • Circulatory – broken down food travels through blood vessels to cells
  • Endocrine – hormones (ex. Insulin) control blood sugar levels