US History – Unit #5 Post-War United States 1945-1970s
Key Learning Students will use competing historical accounts to trace the development of postwar conformity and change in the United States
Unit Essential Question How are contemporary issues of conformity and change problems for postwar America? Does this indicate a patter of continuity or change? Why have historians come to conflicting conclusions regarding postwar American values?
Unit Concepts 1950s America Beginning of Cold War a. Korean War Communism at Home & Space Race Kennedy and Johnson Years 1960-68 Vietnam War & Counter Culture Civil Rights Movement Nixon, Ford & Carter Years 1968-1980
Unit #5 Concept 1, 2 & 3 Test Retake Work Independently Work Quietly May redo short response and extended response only
4th Marking Period • MEDIA PROJECT • Select group members (no more than 3 in a group) • Select date in future – 10, 20 or 30 years • ONLY SELECT ONE DATE • Select media type – newspaper, magazine, TV, or radio • DUE
Homework #7 • Sign Test • Read – John F Kennedy
Exit Ticket • Looking back at the events of the 1950s, what do you predict will occur in the America during the 1960s? Throughout the world?
Unit #5 – John F Kennedy • LEQ – How was John F Kennedy able to impact American society during his short time as President? • Vocabulary Mandate New Frontier
Political Campaign • Imagine a political campaign for President waged without television appearances, interviews or campaign commercials. How would voters learn about the candidates? What do voters learn about candidates from television? How valuable is this information? • Be prepared to share with class
Quiz • How old was JFK when he became President? • What name did he give to his new program? • What equal rights movement was going on in America when JFK was elected? • What invasion of Cuba occurred under JFK? • What crisis almost brought the US and USSR to war?
Quiz 6. What war in Asia did JFK get the US involved in? 7. Where did JFK pledge to be the first to land a person? 8. Who was the first US astronaut to orbit the Earth? 9. Who was the first person to land on the moon? 10. What happened to JFK on November 22, 1963 while in Dallas, TX?
Class work • JFK – VIDEO • Answer questions • NO TALKING
JFK’s New Political View • Liberal Consensus – • Capitalism = best economy • US threatened by communism abroad • Not threatened by domestic problems
Election of 1960 • JFK – Massachusetts Dem (House & Senate) • 43 years old during campaign • Did he have enough experience? • Roman Catholic • Why would his religion be a problem?
Election of 1960 • John F Kennedy vs. Richard Nixon • TV – key role in election • First debate • Result – JFK won • Controversy • Chicago & Texas • Did not have mandate from people
The Promise of Camelot • JFK Inaugural address • “the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans” • “ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.” • Pledged – US defend interests of western democracies • New Administration • Jacqueline Kennedy – 1st Lady • Nickname – “Camelot” (Broadway Musical)
Economic Program • New Frontier – • Economy, aid to poor and space program • Business • Fought with executives (US Steel); stock market fell steepest since 1929 • Taxes • 1963 - $13.5 billion cut in taxes over 3 years • Wanted money in hands of citizens • Never passed
Economic Program • Poverty – • 1st 2 years – help by stimulating economy • Problem – grew up rich • 1962 – Michael Harrington wrote The Other America • Middle-class prosperous in 1950s • 1/5 of nation below poverty line • JFK read book – changed policy
Space Race • JFK – committed US to land man on moon before end of 60s • “We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.” • Congress increased spending for NASA
Looking back on Camelot • Energized nation with call to action • Legislation record mixed • Too concerned with foreign policy • Domestic issues lacked focus • Lacked political experience • Congress (democrats) had own agenda
Homework #8 • Read Peace Corp; Berlin Wall
CFU • JFK remarked that in the 1960 election, “it was TV more than anything else that turned the tide.” Do you think that television ay have given Kennedy an unfair advantage over Nixon, or did it provide voters with information they needed to make an intelligent decision?
Unit #5 - Foreign Policy in the 1960s • LEQ – How did American foreign policy change during the 1960s? • Vocabulary Foreign Policy Berlin Wall
Opener • What is foreign policy? • Create a list of 5 foreign policy goals for the United States • Work with a partner • Be prepared to share with class
Opener 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Quiz • How many Americans have served in the Peace Corps since 1961? • How many nations have the Peace Corps volunteers worked in? • Why did JFK create the Peace Corps? • What country was divided into four zones following WWII? • Why were living conditions in West and East Germany becoming different?
Quiz 6. How many people did East Germany lose to West Germany by 1961? 7 & 8. On what two days did East German soldiers begin to build the wall? 9. How many years did the wall separate West Berlin from Eastern Germany? 10. How many different versions of the wall were built?
Germany • How was Germany already a source of tension between the US and the Soviet Union?
Cold War in Europe • Since 1949 – 3 million unhappy East Germans fled to Western Berlin • August 1961 – tanks and trucks E. Berlin • Barbed wire, fence posts, concrete blocks • BERLIN WALL = symbol of Cold War • Multiple changes/generations over the years
Class work • Berlin Wall DVD • NO TALKING • ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS • WAIT UNTIL END TO ANSWER FINAL QUESTIONS
Homework #9 • Read Cuba and Bay of Pigs; Cuban Missile Crisis
C4U • Why will the Berlin Wall become a symbol for the Cold War?
Unit #5 - Foreign Policy in the 1960s • LEQ – How did American foreign policy change during the 1960s? • Vocabulary Bay of Pigs Exiles
Opener • Given all the events that occurred during the 1950s, should America be more concerned with Communism spreading throughout Asia or closer to home? • Be prepared to share with class.
Quiz • When did Castro take over in Cuba? • What did Eisenhower and the US impose on Cuba after he took over? • Who trained the invasion force that attacked Cuba? • What did the US trade for the captured invaders and their relatives? • What provided surveillance photographs of Cuba to the US government?
Quiz • What did the pictures show was on Cuba? • How long would it take for a missile to reach the US from Cuba? • What did JFK decide to do to stop the USSR from putting missiles in Cuba? • What was the USSR reaction? • Who blinked first?
Conflicts in Cuba • 1959 – Fidel Castro led revolution • Took over American-owned businesses • Established Socialist state • USSR – supplied Cuba with aid • Opposition to Castro fled to US (exiles) • US Scared • 90 miles from US • Encouraged revolutions in other countries WHY?
Badly planned invasion in Cuba • 1961 – JFK took office • Approved plan for CIA to overthrow Castro • CIA trained group of Cuban exiles as invasion force • Other failed attempts
Badly planned invasion in Cuba • April 17, 1961 – 1,200 exiles landed at Bay of Pigs (southern coast)
Class work • Fidel Castro Biography • Answer all questions • NO TALKING