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Chapter 3. Growth of a Young Nation. Section 1: The Jeffersonian Era. A. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809, D-R) 1. agrarian republicanism Farmers are the backbone of nation Small & representative gov’t 2. Marbury v. Madison (1803) Established judicial review.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Growth of a

Young Nation

section 1 the jeffersonian era
Section 1: The Jeffersonian Era
  • A. Thomas Jefferson(1801-1809, D-R)
    • 1. agrarian republicanism
      • Farmers are the backbone of nation
      • Small & representative gov’t
    • 2. Marbury v. Madison(1803)
      • Established judicial review
slide3

3. Louisiana Purchase(1803)

    • 1. $15 million to France
    • 2. doubled size of country
    • 3. Lewis & Clark sent to map new territory
slide4

4. Trade embargoes devastate economy

    • 1807 – no trade w/anyone
    • 1809 – no trade w/GB or Fr.
slide5

B. James Madison (1809-1817, D-R)

    • 1. War of 1812
      • a. Causes: GB impressment of US merchants
      • b. Battle of New Orleans – made Andrew Jackson a national hero
      • c. Treaty of Ghent(1815)
        • No territory changes
        • Go back to “status quo antebellum”
slide6

2. Impact of War

    • a. “second war for independence”
    • b. nationalism
    • c. sectionalism (North vs. South/West)
    • d. encouraged industrialization
      • Henry Clay’s “American System”
        • Protective tariff
        • Second Bank of US
        • Internal improvements
slide7
C. James Monroe(1817-1825, NR)
    • 1. “Era of Good Feelings”
      • Little political conflict (one party)
      • BUT, issues w/sectionalism
    • 2. Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
      • Fixed US-Canada border
      • Purchased FL from Spain
slide8

3. Missouri Compromise(1820)

    • a. MO = slave state; ME = free state
    • b. no slavery above 36’30” line
  • 4. Monroe Doctrine(1823) – warned Europe to stay out of W. Hemisphere
section 2 age of jackson
Section 2: Age of Jackson
  • A. John Q. Adams (1825-1829)
    • 1. “Corrupt Bargain” (1824)
    • 2. Jackson’s cronies campaigned all four year
slide10

B. Andrew Jackson (1829-1837, D)

    • 1. Jacksonian Democracy
      • Spoils system/patronage
      • Focus on the common man
      • “Imperial Presidency”
slide12

2. Indian Removal Act (1830)

    • a. “Trail of Tears”
  • 3. Nullification Crisis (1828-1833)
    • a. SC tried to nullify high tariff
    • b. threats of secession
  • 4. Ended Second Bank of US
    • a. caused an economic depression
  • 5. Hatred of Jackson led to Whig Party
andrew jackson 1829
Andrew Jackson, 1829.
  • “Surrounded by the whites with their arts of civilization, which by destroying the resources of the savage doom him to weakness and decay, the fate of the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware is fast overtaking the Choctaw, the Cherokee, and the Creek. That this fate surely awaits them if they remain within the limits of the States does not admit of a doubt. Humanity and national honor demand that every effort should be made to avert such a calamity.”
slide14

C. Alexis de Tocqueville

    • 1. French social scientist
    • 2. Democracy in America (1835)
      • described these values as crucial to the success of America’s constitutional republic:
        • Liberty
        • Egalitarianism
        • Individualism
        • Populism
        • Laissez-faire
alexis de tocqueville quotes
Alexis de Tocqueville Quotes:

“I do not know if the people of the United States would vote for superior men if they ran for office, but there can be no doubt that such men do not run.”

“There are many men of principle in both parties in America, but there is no party of principle.”

“America is great because she is good. If America ceases to be good, America will cease to be great.”

“The surface of American society is covered with a layer of democratic paint, but from time to time one can see the old aristocratic colours breaking through.”

“Nothing is more wonderful than the art of being free, but nothing is harder to learn how to use than freedom.”

“Democracy extends the sphere of individual freedom, socialism restricts it. Democracy attaches all possible value to each man; socialism makes each man a mere agent, a mere number. Democracy and socialism have nothing in common but one word: equality. But notice the difference: while democracy seeks equality in liberty, socialism seeks equality in restraint and servitude.”

“Slavery...dishonors labor. It introduces idleness into society, and with idleness, ignorance and pride, luxury and distress. It enervates the powers of the mind and benumbs the activity of man.”

section 3 manifest destiny 1840s
Section 3: Manifest Destiny (1840s)
  • A. Beliefs
    • 1. superiority of Anglo-Saxons
    • 2. American exceptionalism (“city on a hill”)
  • B. Moving West
    • 1. Oregon Trail
    • 2. Texas (1845 – statehood)
    • 3. California
      • 1849 – Gold Rush
      • 1850 – statehood
slide18

C. War with Mexico (1846-1848)

    • 1. Pres. James K. Polk
      • a. wanted CA
      • b. TX border dispute
    • 2. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
      • a. US paid $15 million for TXCA
slide19

D. Gadsden Purchase(1853)

    • a. land needed for railroad from TX to CA
    • b. $10 million to Mexico
section 4 market revolution
Section 4: Market Revolution
  • A. 1st Industrial Revolution in US (early 1800s)
    • 1. more land = more resources
    • 2. increase in capital (free enterprise)
    • 3. immigrants (“Old Immigrants”)
    • 4. Market Revolution – change from hand-made to machine-made goods
slide22

B. Inventions

    • 1. 1793 – cotton gin (Eli Whitney)
      • a. industrialization focused on textiles
      • b. invention actually increased slavery
    • 2. 1807 – steam engine (Robert Fulton)
    • 3. 1837 – telegraph (Samuel Morse)
    • 4. 1830s – start of railroads
slide23

C. Farm Technology

    • 1. John Deere – tractors
    • 2. Cyrus McCormick – reaper
  • D. Urbanization
    • 1. farm girls became “factory girls”
      • Lowell Textile mills (MA)
    • 2. “wage slaves”
section 5 reforming american society
Section 5: Reforming American Society
  • A. 2nd Great Awakening
    • 1. led to a number of reform movements
    • 2. sectional splits in S. churches
  • B. Abolition
    • 1. William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator
    • 2. Frederick Douglass
slide25

C. Education

  • D. Prisons & Asylums
    • 1. Dorothea Dix
  • E. Temperance
  • F. Communes (Utopias) – perfectionism
    • 1. New Harmony, IN
    • 2. Oneida, NY
slide26

G. Women and Reform

    • 1. upper class women – “cult of domesticity”
    • 2. abolition
    • 3. female universities
    • 4. Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
      • “Declaration of Sentiments”
      • equal rights & suffrage
      • Susan B. Anthony
      • Sojourner Truth
slide27

H. Art – Hudson River School

    • 1. focused on dramatic landscapes

Albert Bierstadt

Thomas Cole