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  1. www.feltap.gnomio.com future We use tenses of verbs to refer to actions or situations in the present, in the past and in the future www.feltap.blogspot.com www.feltap.gnomio.com Vinayadharraju@gmail.com present past

  2. www.feltap.gnomio.com future There are different sorts of tenses: simple tenses continuous tenses perfect tenses perfect continuous tenses present past

  3. www.feltap.gnomio.com future present tenses present present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous past

  4. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous FORM The present simple is formed with the infinitive of the main verb. The negative and interrogative are formed with the present tense of the verb to do + infinitive. Examples  I start ( he starts) work at 8.30 a.m. When do I start work? I don’t start work until 9.00 a..m. / He doesn’t start work until 9.00 a..m. www.feltap.gnomio.com

  5. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE 1. for habitual and repeated actions Example  I play blues harp and dobro guitar www.feltap.gnomio.com

  6. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous • USE • for habitual and repeated actions • with adverbs (or expressions) of frequency • ( often – usually – sometimes -seldom – rarely – always – occasionally – never– twice a week - on Tuesdays – most of the time ....) • Example •  He often arrives late www.feltap.gnomio.com

  7. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous • USE • for habitual and repeated actions • with adverbs (or expressions) of frequency • Certain verbs are usually only used in the simple form www.feltap.gnomio.com Example Do you see what I mean? She likes my brother very much. I suppose he realizes that now.

  8. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous • USE • for habitual and repeated actions • with adverbs (or expressions) of frequency • Certain verbs are usually only used in the simple form • for something that is permanently true www.feltap.gnomio.com Example Water boils at 100° C.

  9. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com past now future I get up at 7.30 a.m. every day.

  10. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous FORM • This tense is formed with the present tense of the verb to be +present participle of the main verb. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples I’m watching television. What are you doing? He isn’t coming.

  11. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • 1. For actions happening at the moment of speaking. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example She’s reading the newspaper.

  12. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • For actions happening at the moment of speaking. • For a temporary state. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example The company is reorganizing its services.

  13. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • For actions happening at the moment of speaking. • For a temporary state. • For a definite arrangement in the near future. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example They’re signing the contract tomorrow.

  14. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • For actions happening at the moment of speaking. • For a temporary state. • For a definite arrangement in the near future. www.feltap.gnomio.com Some verbs are not usually used in a continuous form

  15. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com now past future I’m adjusting the rotating speed

  16. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous FORM • This tense is formed with the present tense of the verb to have +past participle of the main verb. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples I’ve finished. Where have you been? I haven’t talked to him.

  17. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • Actions in the recent past with ‘just, recently, already, at last, lately’ www.feltap.gnomio.com Example He has just immersed the temperature probe into the molten steel.

  18. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • Actions in the recent past with ‘just, recently, already, at last, lately’ • General experience with ‘ever – never – before – so far’ www.feltap.gnomio.com Example This is the highest carbon ratio I’ve ever seen.

  19. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • Actions in the recent past with ‘just, recently, already, at last, lately’ • General experience with ‘ever – never – before – so far’ • The indefinite past: we are interested in what happened, not in when it happened. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example I have seen the report. (I know what it is about.) He has sold the company. They have had lunch.

  20. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • Actions in the recent past with ‘just, recently, already, at last, lately’ • General experience with ‘ever – never – before – so far’ • The indefinite past: we are interested in what happened, not in when it happened. • Actions starting in the past and continuing to the present, with ‘for’ or ‘since”. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example The operation has been suspended for two months. The firm has had a Belgian branch since October last year.

  21. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com relationship with the present moment now past future I ‘ve just arrived.

  22. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com ? ? ? now past future Have you been to France?

  23. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com now past future They have revised their report.

  24. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com now past future We have conducted experiments on this phenomenon for almost two years.

  25. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous FORM • This tense is formed with the present perfect of the verb to be +present participle of the main verb. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples I ‘ve been writing code for our new data-mining program. Has she been trying to contact me? She hasn’t been writing at all.

  26. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous USE • We use this tense for actions started in the past, continuing to the present and probably continuing into the future. We often use it with “for” or “since”. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples I’ ve been trying to persuade him for ten years now. We ‘ve been practicing this routine since last Wednesday.

  27. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com past now 2004 future 1984 I ‘ve been driving driving lorries for twenty years..... In this sentence, the duration is emphasized, either positively or negatively. So I know what I’m talking about! So it’s high time I quit.

  28. present simple present continuous present perfect present perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com past now 2004 future 1984 I ‘ve driven a Volkswagen for twenty years..... In this sentence, the duration is indicated, but the car brand is emphasized. Clearly I have confidence in this car.

  29. www.feltap.gnomio.com future past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous present past past tenses

  30. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous FORM This tense is formed by adding-ed to the infinitive. The negative and interrogative are formed with thepast tense of the verb to do+ infinitiveof the main verb www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples  They arrived at head quarters an hour ago. When did he finalize this deal? I didn’t finish until 12 o’clock.

  31. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous USE 1. For actions completed at a definite time in the past. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example  We signed the contract last Friday at 2 o’clock.

  32. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous • USE • For actions completed at a definite time in the past. • For actions which are already completed in the past: the time is understood but not stated. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example  Did you arrive in time?

  33. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous • USE • For actions completed at a definite time in the past. • For actions which are already completed in the past: the time is understood but not stated. • The ‘unreal past tense’ is used after the verb ‘to wish’ and after words and phrases such as ‘if only; it’s time; suppose’ etc. The simple past tense implies that the speaker knows that the wish or the idea is impossible. Note that the wish refers to the present time. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples If I only knew his name. I wish I were at home now. If I were in his shoes, I would fix his wagon without much scruples. It’s time I went home.

  34. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com past now future 15.30 I arrived at 15.30 sharp.

  35. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous FORM This tense is formed with the past tense of the verb to be + present participle of the main verb. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples I was watching TV at 8 o’clock yesterday. Where were you looking for my glasses this time? I wasn’t eavesdropping at all!

  36. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous USE 1. To emphasize the continuity of the past action. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples She was playing tennis with a friend. He was discussing production planning for the coming week.

  37. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous • USE • To emphasize the continuity of the past action. • To describe an action in progress at a certain time in the past. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples At 6 p.m. I was still sleeping. At a quarter past nine I was having breakfast. Prices were going up all the time.

  38. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous • USE • To emphasize the continuity of the past action. • To describe an action in progress at a certain time in the past. • To describe an interrupted past action. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples When he arrived, I was studying the quarterly reports.

  39. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous • USE • To emphasize the continuity of the past action. • To describe an action in progress at a certain time in the past. • To describe an interrupted past action. • To express repeated past actions which caused irritation, annoyance. ( with always, forever) www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples He was always trying to influence the personnel director. She was forever paring her nails during meetings.

  40. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com future past now I was working all day yesterday.

  41. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com past now future I was working all day yesterday. yesterday past now future I worked all day yesterday.

  42. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com past now future 1. I was working all day yesterday. yesterday past now future 2. I worked all day yesterday. While (1) emphasizes the continuity of the action, (2) only indicates that the action took place yesterday.

  43. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com past now future 8.30 p.m. I was watching TV at 8.30 last night.

  44. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com 8.30 p.m. past now future 3. I was watching TV at 8.30 last night. 8.30 p.m. past future now 4. I watched TV at 8.30 last night. Whereas 3. indicates that the action started before and continued after a certain point in time, 4. indicates that the action happened (started) at 8.30

  45. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com I was browsing through your report ... future past now when he knocked at my office door.

  46. past perfect past simple past continuous past perfect continuous FORM This tense is formed with the past tense of the verb to have+ past participle of the main verb. www.feltap.gnomio.com Examples I had never seen so many measuring tools. What assistance had he given? He hadn’t expected this outcome.

  47. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous USE 1. We use this tense to describe one past action happening before another past action. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example The customer had left the shop by the time I found his order form.

  48. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous • USE • We use this tense to describe one past action happening before another past action. • We use it when necessary to indicate the sequence of two actions. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example He had already cleared the screen when I got behind his desk.

  49. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous • USE • We use this tense to describe one past action happening before another past action. • We use it when necessary to indicate the sequence of two actions. • We often us it when the second action is understood, but not stated. www.feltap.gnomio.com Example I hadn’t realized! (until you told me.)

  50. past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous on the time diagram www.feltap.gnomio.com past had dinner watched TV future now 1. When I had had dinner, I watched TV. watched TV past had dinner now future 2. I had dinner before I watched TV. In (1) the sequence of actions is expressed by the past perfect tense; whereas in (2) the sequence of actions is indicated by the use of before