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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells PowerPoint Presentation
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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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  1. 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

  2. Eukaryotic Cells • Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. • Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.

  3. Figure 4.22a

  4. Figure 4.22 - Overview

  5. Figure 4.22a

  6. Flagella and Cilia Euglena Tetrahymena Figure 4.23a–b

  7. Figure 4.23 - Overview

  8. Microtubules • Tubulin • Nine pairs + two arrangements (9 + 2 array) Figure 4.23c

  9. Cell Wall • Cell wall • Plants, algae, fungi • Carbohydrates • Cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannan • Glycocalyx • Carbohydrates extending from animal plasma membrane • Bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane

  10. Plasma Membrane • Phospholipid bilayer • Peripheral proteins • Integral proteins • Sterols • Glycocalyx carbohydrates

  11. Plasma Membrane • Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules • Simple diffusion • Facilitative diffusion • Osmosis • Active transport • Endocytosis • Phagocytosis: Pseudopods extend and engulf particles. • Pinocytosis: Membrane folds inward bringing in fluid and dissolved substances.

  12. Eukaryotic Cell • Cytoplasm:Substance inside plasma and outside nucleus • Cytosol: Fluid portion of cytoplasm • Cytoskeleton: Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules • Cytoplasmic streaming: Movement of cytoplasm throughout cells

  13. Cytoplasmic Streaming

  14. Organelles • Membrane-bound • Nucleus: Contains chromosomes • ER: Transport network • Golgi complex: Membrane formation and secretion • Lysosome: Digestive enzymes • Vacuole: Brings food into cells and provides support • Mitochondrion: Cellular respiration • Chloroplast: Photosynthesis • Peroxisome: Oxidation of fatty acids; destroys H2O2

  15. Eukaryotic Cell • Not membrane-bound • Ribosome: Protein synthesis • Centrosome: Consists of protein fibers and centrioles • Centriole: Mitotic spindle formation

  16. Nucleus Figure 4.24

  17. Figure 4.24a

  18. Figure 4.24c

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Figure 4.25

  20. Figure 4.25a

  21. Figure 4.25b

  22. Golgi Complex Figure 4.26

  23. Lysosomes and Vacuoles Figure 4.22b

  24. Mitochondrion Figure 4.27

  25. Figure 4.27b

  26. Chloroplast Figure 4.28

  27. Figure 4.28b

  28. Endosymbiotic Theory Figure 10.2

  29. Endosymbiotic Theory UN 4.1