VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING AUTHORITY EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS LEARNED ON RECOGNITION OF APPRENTICESHIP LEARNING IN TANZANIA Regional Workshop on Upgrading Informal Apprenticeship Held in Johannesburg South Africa (22th – 25th April 2013) Presented by Leah Dotto
PAPER CONTENT Introduction An overview on informal apprenticeship in Tanzania Purpose of the project Demographic characteristics of assessed apprentices Assessment process Findings Lessons learnt Recommendations Conclusion
INTRODUCTION The Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) is an autonomous government agency responsible for coordinating and regulating vocational training in Tanzania VETA and (ILO), agreed to work together to find ways of improving the informal apprenticeship training system in three regions in Tanzania as part of the framework of the Tanzanian Joint Programme on Wealth Creation, Employment and Economic Empowerment, ILO Project M.250/08/159/001.
Overview of the informal apprenticeship in Tanzania Most of workers in the informal sector have obtained their skills through informal apprenticeship training Informal apprenticeship in the informal sector is the main entry point for drop-outs from basic and post-basic education. Training is all hands-on with no formal instruction Low quality of goods and services and levels of productivity there are hardly ever written agreements between the trainer and trainee. The system rarely encourages technological innovation.
Overview of the informal apprenticeship in Tanzania ….cont’d Advantages Low cost of training Apprentices learn to work in the predominant working conditions. It provides a mechanism for integrating idle youth into productive engagement Financing from the Government
Purpose of the Project • Two aspects were explored: • skills development of informal apprentices and • How RPL could facilitate informal skills Assessment, certification and learning progression. MECHANISM FOR VALIDATING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ACQUIRED INFORMALLY • Trade test in the previous years • RPL is part of Competence Based Assessment • Guidelines are available to guide the process
Assessment of informal apprentices between 2011 -2012 Statists of assessed informal apprentices: Informal Apprentices
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ASSESSED APPRENTICES their age between 20 - 40, the mean age was 30 years old. Years spent in the work place: 3 – 12 at a particular work a place, and yet their supervisors/employers regarded them as learners hence paying them very low wages. Drop-outs from basic and post-basic education
The assessment process Meeting with owners of workplaces and craft persons to discuss the modalities for conducting the assessment; Establish Competence profiles of informal apprentices and master craft persons; The assessment items were developed based on the claimed competences; Assessment was divided into two main parts: practical assessment integrated with oral questions and objective multiple choice questions to assess underpinning knowledge; and Assessors consisted of experts from micro enterprises and VETA teachers
Findings from Assessment for RPL Inadequate knowledge (theory) in their field of work; Inadequate adherence to occupational safety and health rules; weaknesses in selection and use of tools appropriately; All assessed apprentices were ready to take studies to fill in the knowledge and skills gaps; Preferred to take their studies during weekends, Saturdays in particular;
Findings from Assessment for RPL …….cont’d Acknowledged the importance of cost sharing at a maximum of 30 USD for the whole training programme. They would like VETA to continue visiting and training them on the current technologies for better employment, Requested the ARPL system to be sustained. owners were grateful for the exercise worried about losing their trusted workers once are certified
Lessons learnt RPL assessment cannot be a one short assessment but rather, a comprehensive one to capture all critical skills of the declared competencies; Changing the current mindset is necessary; Flexibility in assessing theory is required - to use either written or oral as some have difficulties in writing; Informal apprentices have no financial capacity to cover the actual training cost hence a need to subsidize it;
Lessons learnt ……cont’d Design training programme to fit into their working schedules; Informal apprentices specialize in one or a limited range of skills; Difficult in establishing craft association concept; and Informal apprentices get their training either in the informal or formal sector.
Recommendations Need to improve the informal apprenticeship training for the system to continue providing training to an ever increasing number of young people who cannot access formal training; Need to improve institution capacity to cope with high demand of Part time attributed to RPL; Training to be provided in part time or block release to bridge their knowledge and skills gaps; Assessment and Certification be for mastered skills (Unit or modular certification) and provide a possibility for full qualification;
Recommendations ……. cont’d Training programmes should focus on filling the identified learning gaps including unlearning wrong work habits; The on-the-job trainers need orientation on pedagogical skills in order to ensure that informal work places continue to provide training effectively; Informal Apprentices need to be supported to pursue further training; and The main source of the Vocational Education and Training Fund is Skills and Development Levy paid by employers from the Formal Sector. Less than 10% is allocated to Informal sector training therefore sustainable funding is required.
Conclusion the Government and all development partners’ work together to support these ambitious entrepreneurs