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  2. Finnish Education System Polytechnics postgraduate 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 Polytechnics Universities Additional vocational training Further vocational qualifications Specialist vocational qualifications Working life 3 2 1 Upper secondary vocational qualification 3 2 1 General upper secondary education 9 (10) Basic education (ages 7-16) 1 Pre-school education (6 years old) / 2007/ RL

  3. Vocational Education and Training (VET) • 52 upper secondary qualifications, including 113 study programmes. • Scope of studies: 3 years (120 credits). • Half a year (20 credits) of on-the-job learning. • It is possible to take upper secondary vocational qualifications in the form of competence-based qualifications (specifically designed for adult with a previous work experience). • Apprenticeship training is also a way of obtaining an upper secondary vocational qualification. • There is also preparatory education for disabled people, for immigrants (in order to improve students’ language skills and other capabilities required for their future occupation) and courses in home economics. SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION IS TAILORED AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE TO SUIT INDIVIDUAL NEEDS. / 2007/ RL

  4. Fields of study and distibution of students in upper secondary vocational education and training / 2007/ RL

  5. STRUCTURE OF STUDIES (3 years) Fields of study and distibution of students in upper secondary vocational education and training • extensive basic studies • specialisation studies • on-the-job learning • 90 credits:Vocational studies. • 20 credits: Core subjects. • 10 credits: Free choice studies. • native language • second national language (Swedish, Finnish) • foreign language • physics and chemistry • social, business and labour market subjects • phisical and health education • arts and culture / 2007/ RL

  6. APPLICATIONS FOR VET • Applicants are free to apply for the vocational programme of their choice anywhere in the country. • The Ministry of Education decides on student admissions criteria. (Admissions are determined on the basis of previous study record, the ranking of the programme on the applicant’s list and work experience. Those applying directly from basic education receive extra points in the admissions procedure). / 2007/ RL

  7. Challenges to Development THE CHALLENGE: ”MEET THE COMPETENCE NEED OF INDIVIDUALS AND WORKING LIFE.” Increasing of skills requirements in working life • Topical issues in development of vocational education and training: • Bringing education and working life close together; • Improving quality and learning in the workplace; • Incorporating vocational skills demonstrations into upper secondary qualifications; • Cooperation with general upper secondary education; • Expanding study tracks to higher education; • Developing practices for recognition of previously acquired competencies; • Supporting the most vulnerable students, special needs education, reducing drop-out rates and developing partecipation mechanism for young people; • Improving the performance and quality of vocational education and training; • Internationalisation • Improving the appreciation and attractiveness of vocational education and training. / 2007/ RL

  8. Administration • Vocational education and training mainly falls within the administrative sector of the Ministry of Education. Provisions on vocational education and training are laid down in Acts of Parliament. • Key legislation consists of the Vocational Education and Training Act (630/1998), the Vocational Adult Education Act (631/1998) and the Act on the Financing of the Provision of Education and Culture (635/1998). PARLIAMENT Legislation State Budget General Education policy Appointed by the Ministry of Education to mantain contacts with working life at a national level. Close contacts with the local world of work are the cornerstone of high-quality instruction. Key role in adult education and training. Appointed by the National Board of Education to implement competence-based qualifications. GOVERNMENT Decrees Education development plans and policy programmes General objectives of studies STATE PROVINCIAL OFFICIES Specific administrative duties MINISTRY OF EDUCATION Education policy definition Steering and financial regulation Qualifications NATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING COMMITTEES, QUALIFICATION COMMITTEES Contacts with working life NATIONAL BOARD OF EDUCATION National Core Curricula and Requirements of Qualifications Implementation of Development Programmes Services EDUCATION PROVIDERS Local planning and organisation of education and training Provisions of education and training Local advisory councils for VET and other bodies / 2007/ RL

  9. VET Providers • The VET provider network is quite comprehensive and diversified in regional terms. Education may be provided by those local authorities, joint municipal authorities, registered associations or foundations or state enterprises. • In 2005, there are 180 upper secondary VET providers mantaining more than 300 education institutions. 90 of these VET providers also offer apprenticeship training. • The State mantains five special education institutions, the Educational Centre of the Sami Area and the Maritime Safety Training Centre. • Swedish-language vocational education and training is provided either by Swedish language or bilingual institutions. • Teaching staff are well-educated: an appropriate polytechnic or university degree in the field or subject, 3 years of work experience and pedagogical studies with a scope of 35 credits. • The key factors involved in responding to vocational competence needs include: • sound field-specific competence, • close contacts with working life, • taking individual needs into account when planning and implementing education and training. THE NUMBER OF EDUCATION PROVIDERS HAS DROPPED IN THE LAST TEN YEARS, BECAUSE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS HAVE BEEN MERGED TO FORM LARGER AND LARGER ENTITIES. / 2007/ RL

  10. ASSESSMENT • Student assessment is encouraging and based on dialogue and it includes each student’s self assessment as an integral part of the process. • Once a student has completed the studies included in the qualification to an accettable standard, they receive a qualification certificate. • Skill demonstrations form a part of student assessment. Their number varies by qualification. They are organised in connection with on-the-job learning. / 2007/ RL

  11. STUDYING AND STUDY PLANS • Studies take place in different environments: workshops, laboratories and teachingrestaurants. • Students caninfluence their own individual study plans. In order to guarantee the effectiveness of individual study plans, the studies include at least 1.5 credits of guidance counselling. In addition, students receive personal guidance and support according to their own needs. • Students can complete an upper secondary qualification and the general upper secondary school matriculation examination in parallel. / 2007/ RL

  12. APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING • Based on a written fixed-term employment. About 80% of learning take place in the workplace: competences develops in conditions and work situations typical of the workplace. • Students in apprenticeship training may complete upper secondary vocational qualification, and further a specialist qualification as part of additional training. • The employer pays the apprentice’s wage, and receives training compensation to cover the costs of training provided. The student receives social benefits, such as a daily allowances for accomodation and travel expenses. / 2007/ RL

  13. Study costs and social –health care • The second form of financial support is the transport subsidy for daily travel between home and school. • Students are entitled to receive social and health care services free of charge, provided in cooperation with municipal social and health administration. • Many educational institutions have a multidisciplinary student welfare team to look after students’ welfare. • Each educational institution has a student association made up of students. It functions as a messenger to the school’s decision-making bodies. • Free-choice studies are often based on students’ own interest. • Instruction in upper secondary vocational education and training is provided free of charge. Students in additional training may be charged reasonably fees • Textbooks and supplies for personal use are funded by students themselves. • Full time students are entitled to a free meal every working day. If the educational institution has a hall of residence, accomodation is also provided free of charge. • The primary form of financial support for full-time students is student financial aid, which consists of a study grant, a housing supplement and a government-guaranteed student loan. The conditions for receiving student financial aid include full-time study, progress made in studies and the need for financial support. / 2007/ RL

  14. Financing Vocational education and training VET is mostly financed from the Ministry of Education budget. The Ministry of Labour may also finance vocational education and training provided as labour market training. Central and local government co-finance upper secondary vocational education and training. FINANCING OF VET Statuary government transfer - operating cost and investments Performance-based funding (government subsidy) • Based on operational outcome • effectiveness • processes • staff • Based on quality assessment • EFQM • Special themes Unit price/ student/ year Financing of vocational education and training is based on a unit price calculated per student. If an education provider offer at least 2 fields of education, the unit price is calculated on the basis of the field-specific student numbers and unit prices by weighting the unit prices by students numbers. Funding is also influenced by the number of special needs students and particularly high-cost qualifications. Outcome-based funds Quality Award / 2007/ RL

  15. Quality and Internationalisation • The quality of vocational competence is assured by the National Core Curricula and the Requirements of Competence-based Qualifications : • Objective of Internationalisation: • - to improve Quality of VET • - to increase trasparency of VET • - to centralise the credit transfer system. • Accreditation of completed studies and competencies acquired in other ways, in particular, aims to increase student mobility. International network and cooperation based on working-life needs play an important role in this respect. • Periods of study and on-the-job learning conforming to the National Core Curricula can also be implemented through international exchanges. • In 2003, about 4,500 students and 1,880 teachers from Finland went out on international exchanges thanks to various forms of funding. • Finland welcomed about 2,200 incoming upper secondary level VET students and 850 teachers. • Based on the needs of working life • Determined in cooperation with the world of work. • VET providers are encouraged to improve quality through: • national quality management recommendations, • annual Quality Awards for VET, • performance-based funding. • Education providers have a statutory duty to evaluate their own operations through self-evaluation and a partecipation in external evaluation. The National Board of Education mantains a national evaluation system based on vocational skills demonstrations. / 2007/ RL