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Today’s Issues: South Asia. South Asia faces the challenges of rapid population growth, destructive weather, and territorial disputes caused by religious and ethnic differences. . Rickshaw drivers in Calcutta, India, wait for customers during a monsoon. NEXT. Today’s Issues: South Asia.

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slide1

Today’s Issues:

South Asia

South Asia faces the challenges of rapid population growth, destructive weather, and territorial disputes caused by religious and ethnic differences.

Rickshaw drivers in Calcutta, India, wait for customers during a monsoon.

NEXT

slide2

Today’s Issues:

South Asia

Population Explosion

SECTION 1

SECTION 2

Living with Extreme Weather

Territorial Dispute

Case Study

Unit Atlas: Physical

Unit Atlas: Political

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slide3

Section 1

Population Explosion

• Explosive population growth in South Asia has contributed to social and economic ills in the region.

• Education is key to controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in South Asia.

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slide4

SECTION

Population Explosion

1

Growing Pains

Rapid growth

• In 2000, India’s population reached 1 billion

• Rapid growth means many citizens lack life’s basic necessities

- food, clothing, shelter

• South Asia must manage population growth so economies can develop

Continued . . .

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slide5

SECTION

1

continuedGrowing Pains

Population Grows

• India’s population was 300 million in 1947; has since tripled

• So large that even 2% growth rate produces population explosion

• Unless rate slows, India will have 1.5 billion by 2045

- would be the world’s most populous country

(passing China)

• India, Pakistan, Bangladesh among top 10 most populous countries

- region has 22% of world’s population, lives on 3% of world’s land

Map

Continued . . .

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slide6

SECTION

1

continuedGrowing Pains

Inadequate Resources

• Region has widespread poverty, illiteracy—inability to read or write

- poor sanitation, health education lead to disease

outbreaks

• Every year, to keep pace, India would have to:

- build 127,000 new schools and 2.5 million new

homes

- create 4 million new jobs

- produce 6 million more tons of food

Chart

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slide7

SECTION

1

Managing Population Growth

Smaller Families

• India spends nearly $1 billion a year encouraging smaller families

• Programs have only limited success

- Indian women marry before age 18, start having

babies early

- to poor, children are source of money (begging,

working fields)

- children can later take care of elderly parents

- have more kids to beat high infant mortality

Continued . . .

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slide8

SECTION

1

continuedManaging Population Growth

Education is a Key

• Growth factors can be changed with education, but funds are limited

- India spends under $6 per pupil a year on

education

- U.S. spends $6,320 per pupil a year

• Education could break cycle of poverty, raise living standards

- improves females’ status with job opportunities

- better health care education could lower infant

mortality rates

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slide9

Section 2

Living with Extreme Weather

• South Asia experiences a yearly cycle of floods, often followed by drought.

• The extreme weather in South Asia leads to serious physical, economic, and political consequences.

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slide10

SECTION

Living with Extreme Weather

2

The Monsoon Seasons

Summer and Winter Wind Systems

• Annual cycle of extreme weather makes life difficult

• Monsoon is wind system, not a rainstorm; two monsoon seasons

• Summer monsoon—blows moist from southwest, across Indian Ocean

- blows June through September, causes

rainstorms, flooding

• Winter monsoon—blows cool from northeast, across Himalayas, to sea

- blows October through February, can cause

drought

Interactive

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slide11

SECTION

2

Impact of the Monsoons

Physical Impact

• Summer monsoons nourish rain forests, irrigate crops

- floodwaters bring rich sediment to soil, but can

also damage crops

• Cyclones are common with summer monsoons

- called hurricanes in North America

- cause flooding, widespread destruction

- 1970 Bangladesh cyclone killed 300,000

• Winter monsoon droughts turn lush lands into arid wastelands

Continued . . .

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slide12

SECTION

2

continuedImpact of the Monsoons

Economic Impact

• Floods, droughts make agriculture difficult

- countries buy what they can’t grow; famine looms

•Weather catastrophes also destroy homes, families

- people often too poor to rebuild, governments

lack funds to help

• People build: houses on stilts, concrete cyclone shelters, dams

• Region gets international aid and billions of dollars in loans

- aid can’t keep up with disasters, debts result

Image

Continued . . .

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slide13

SECTION

2

continuedImpact of the Monsoons

Political Tensions

• Weather conditions also cause political disputes

•India builds Farakka dam across Ganges before it enters Bangladesh

- India wants to bring water to city of Kolkata

- dam leaves little water for Bangladesh

- many of Bangladesh’s farmers lose land, illegally

flee to India

- dispute is settled in 1997 with a treaty specifying

water rights

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slide14

Territorial Dispute

Case Study

How Can India and Pakistan Resolve Their Dispute Over Kashmir?

BACKGROUND

• Kashmir territory is strategically located at foot of Himalayas

• Territory of 12 million people surrounded by Pakistan, China, India

• India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir since 1947

• Dispute threatens region’s stability, countries’ economic well-being

• Danger increases now that both countries have nuclear weapons

Interactive

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slide15

Case Study

A Controversy Over Territory

Partitioning

• British left India in 1947 and partitioned—divided—the subcontinent

- created two independent countries

- India is predominantly Hindu, Pakistan is mostly Muslim

• Britain lets each Indian state choose which country to join

- Muslim states join Pakistan, Hindu states remain in India

Continued . . .

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slide16

Case Study

continued A Controversy Over Territory

Politics and Religion

• Kashmir’s problem: population is Muslim, but its leader was Hindu

• Maharajah of Kashmir wants an independent nation

- but is forced to cede territory to India in 1947

• Pakistan invades; a year later India still controls much of Kashmir

• India, Pakistan fight two more wars over Kashmir in 1965, 1971

- dispute remains unresolved; each country still controls part

- China has had a small portion since 1962

Continued . . .

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slide17

Case Study

continued A Controversy Over Territory

A Question of Economics

• Indus River flows through Kashmir

- many of its tributaries originate in the territory

• Indus is critical source of drinking, irrigation water in Pakistan

- Pakistan doesn’t want India to control that resource

• Kashmir is a strategic prize neither side will give up

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slide18

Case Study

A Nuclear Nightmare

Dangerous Testing

• India and Pakistan each test nuclear weapons in 1998

- raise fears that the 50-year-old dispute could go nuclear

- after tests, both countries vow to seek political solution

• Border clashes continue

- Pakistan supports Kashmir Muslims fighting Indian rule

Continued . . .

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slide19

Case Study

continued A Nuclear Nightmare

A Question of Priorities

• Both India and Pakistan have large populations, widespread poverty

- both overspend on troops, arms, nuclear

programs

- that money could be used for education and

social programs

• Resolving Kashmir problem would bring peace

- the quality of people’s lives could start

improving

- resolution could reduce the region’s political

tensions

NEXT

slide20

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slide21

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