PRESENTING:. IVAN PAVLOV. AND HIS DOG!. Isabella espinal 11th grade (ib). Learning Perspective Terms :. Unconditional Stimulus → A stimulus that provides a response without prior learning . Unconditional Response → An unlearned response that is automatically elicited by the US.
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PRESENTING: IVAN PAVLOV AND HIS DOG! Isabella espinal 11th grade (ib)
Learning Perspective Terms: • UnconditionalStimulus→ A stimulusthatprovides a response without prior learning. • Unconditional Response→ Anunlearned response thatisautomaticallyelicitedbythe US. • ConditionedStimulus→ Previous neutral stimulusthateventuallyelicitsthecondition response afterbeingassociatedwiththeunconditionedstimulus. • ConditionedResponse→Learned response to CS thatoccursafterconditionedstimulus and unconditionedstimulusparing. (Pavlov, 1927) • Reflexes→ Automaticstimulus- response connections. • ClassicalConditioning→ A neutral stimulusbecomesassociatedwith a meaningfulstimulus and acquiresthecapacitytoelicit a similar response.
t • Learning→ A relativelypermanentchange in behaviorthatoccursthroughexperience. • Extinction→ Theweakening of theconditioned response in theabsence of theunconditionedstimulus. • StimulusSubstitution→ Pavlostheory of howclassicalconditioningworks; thenervoussystemisstructured in such a waythattheconditionedstimulus and theunconditionedstimulus bond together and eventuallytheconditionedstimulussubstitutedfortheunconditionedstimulus. • Informationtheory→ Contemporaryexplanation of whyclassicalconditionworks, keytounderstandclassicalconditioningfocusesontheinformationanorganisimgetsfromthesituation. • Counterconditioning→ A procedureforweakening a conditioned response byassociatingthefear-provokingstimuluswith a new response incompatible withthefear.
Learning Perspective.. The learning perspective examines the effects of experience and the role of the environment on development. Therefore learning is equal to development. Our behavior, personalities, and thoughts are shaped by the different experiences we encounter. Learning theorists state that we are a product of our environment. Traditional Learning Theory is based on behavior modification through classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Social Learning Theory focuses on two ideas. One is the relationship between cognition, behavior and the environment. The second is learning through modeling or observation. The four criteria for learning by observation are:
Behaviorism: You can only observe behavior, youcant test it in anyway. Peoplelearntheirbehaviorby training. Behavioristsbelievethatallbehaviorisconditioned, reinforced and reflexive. “Free willisanallusion”. ClassicalConditioning (Alsoreferedto as PavlovianafterourveryownIvanPavlov). Thereis a procedureforinducingclassicalconditioningwhichinvolves a neutral stimulus, and anunconditionedstimuluswhichresult in anunconditionedresponse. FOR EXAMPLE →PAVLOVS DOG→ BELL (neutral stimulus) † FOOD (unconditionedstimulus) = SALIVATION (unconditioned response). ↘ BELL (conditionedstimulus) = SALIVATION (conditioned response).
WHO IS THIS PAVLOV GUY? IvanPetrovichPavlov, wasborn in Ryazan, RussiaonSeptember 14, 1849. He wasawardedthe Nobel Prize in Psychologyor Medicine 1904 forhisworkonthedigestivesystem. Thismanismostrecognizedbyhisdiscovery of classical conditioning. Pavlov received his doctorate in 1879 from the university of Saint Petersburg on natural sciences and became a psychologist. In 1890 Pavlov was appointed Professor of Pharmacology at the Military Medical Academy and five years later he was appointed to the then vacant Chair of Physiology. At first Ivan was most interested on his investigation of gastric functions of dogs, and he dedicated to his throughout the 1890’s by collecting measuring and analyzing the saliva and its response to food under various conditions. His research in the physiology of digestion led him to create a science of conditioned reflexes we now know as classical conditioning. Pavlov then noticed that the dogs to salivate before they ate the food and he set out to investigate this "psychic secretion", as he named it. ?
This discovery of the function of conditioned reflexes made it possible to investigate by experimental means the most complex interrelations between an organism and its external environment. In the paper The Experimental Psychology and Psychopathology of Animals the definition of conditioned and other reflexes was specified. This states that conditioned reflexes should be regarded as a psychological phenomenon. Following this came the clue that condition reflex was a response of organisms to their environment. Therefore Pavlov transformed Sechenov’s attempt to discover the reflex mechanism of psychic activity into a proven theory of conditioned reflexes. The development of the principles of determinism, analysis, synthesis, and structure by Pavlov and his school helped building-up a scientific theory of medicine and toward the discovery of laws governing the functioning of the organism as a whole. Throughout his life, even in the beginning of his researches, Pavlov received world acclaim and recognition. He was given plenty of awards including an honorary doctorate at Cambridge University in 1912, and a recommendation of the Medical Academy of Paris awarded him the Order of the Legion of Honour in 1915.
Lenin A specialgovernmentdecreesignedby Lenin onJanuary 24, 1921 noted “theoutstandingscientificservices of AcademicianPavlov, which are of enormoussignificancetotheworkingclass of thewholeworld”. The Soviet Government and theCommunistParty of RussiamadesurethatPavlov and hisresearchteamreceivedunlimitedscopeforscientificresearch. The Soviet Unionbecameveryinvolved in thestudy of physiology and the International PhysiologicalCongress of 1935 took place in Leningrad and Moscow as a reflection of Russia’s new interest. Personal Stuff LEGACY Pavlov married SerephimaVasilievna known as Sara in 1881. She was a teacher and daughter of a doctor of the Black Sea fleet. After a traumatizing miscarriage they had a son Wirchik, who died suddenly as a child. Three more sons were born, Vladimir, Victor and Vsevolod, a well known physicist and professor at Leningrad. Unexpectedly another child arrived, their daughter Vera, which Ivan Pavlov called his blessing. Pavlovleftthegreatestscientificlegacy, a group of youngpupilswhocontinueddevelopingthe ideas of theirmaster. IvanPavlovnurtured a greatschool of physiologists. He directedhimselftowardscientificreforms and transformingthephysiologicalinstitutionsheadedbyhiminto centers of scientificknowledge. Dr. Pavlov died in Leningrad on February 27, 1936. → →→
EXPERIMENT → While Ivan Pavlov worked to unveil the secrets of the digestive system, he also studied what signals triggered related phenomena, such as the secretion of saliva. This saliva is needed in order to make the food easier to swallow. → Pavlov became interested in studying reflexes when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to a stimulus. Every time the dogs were served food, this stimulus let them know. Therefore, the dogs reacted as if food was on its way whenever they perceived this stimulus. → In a series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked. For example, he struck a bell when the dogs were fed. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal, the dogs learnt to associate the sound of the bell with food. After a while, at the mere sound of the bell, they responded by drooling. TheMoment of Truth
GETTING THE RESPONSE PROCESS: BELL→ NEUTRAL STIMULUS: produces no specific response other than focusing attention. FOOD→ UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS: something natural , elicits an unconditioned response. SALIVATION→ UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE: unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to an unconditioned stimulus. THE BELL SOUNDED. THE FOOD ARRIVED. THE DOG STARTED SALIVATING. THE BELL SOUNDED THE DOG STARTED SALIVATING THE FOOD ARRIVED ( THIS DIDN’T WORK FOR PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT.) BELL→ UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS. = SALIVATION→ UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE. BELL→CONDITIONED STIMULUS: is previously neutral stimulus that once associated with the unconditioned stimulus it triggers a conditioned response. = SALIVATION→ CONDITIONED RESPONSE: learned response to the previously neutral stimulus.
LINK 1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5lCleK-PM
YOU DIDN’T KNOW!! • Born to a Russian minister on September 14, 1849, Pavlov grew up in the town of Ryazan. Due to a childhood accident, Ivan was unable to attend school as early as other children, but did get started at age 11. After finishing school he was sent to theological seminary to follow in his father's footsteps, but dropped out in 1870 to enroll at the University of St. Petersburg. It was there that Pavlov became interested in and started his career in physiology . • There is a progressive rock/AOR band from the 1970’s that was named Pavlov’s Dog. This band formed in St. Louis in 1972. • Most commentary about Ivan Pavlov examines his work on conditioned reflexes and how it influenced other ideas, even brainwashing. One example is the book "Brainwashing from Pavlov to Powers" by Edward Hunter.
PavlovThought: Pavlov felt that the experimental methods used by many physiologic researchers introduced too many sources of error. In order to understand the true physiological mechanisms of an organ, that organ had to be observed as it functioned as a part of whole body: "I would prefer to remain a pure physiologist, that is, an investigator who studies the functions of separate organs, the conditions of their activity, and the synthesis of their function in the total mechanism as a part or in the whole of the organism; and I am little interested in the ultimate, deep basis for the function of an organ or of its tissues, for which primarily chemical or physical analysis is required." The final 35 years of Pavlov's research were devoted to the investigation of the conditioned reflex and the study of the brain. In the late 1920's, he began working with clinical patients, trying to understand the qualitative differences between the higher nervous processes of animals and of people. "Science will sooner or later bring the obtained objective results to our subjective world, and will at once illuminate our mysterious nature, will explain the mechanism and vital meaning of that which eternally occupies the human mind - it's conscience, and it's tribulations." The ' model presented by Pavlov had an enormous influence on western behavioral psychology. For'conditioning Pavlov, the assumption was that the unconscious processes that existed were simple reflexes which could be conditioned to affect behavioral change.
The phrase "Pavlov's dog" is often used to describe someone who merely reacts to a situation rather than uses critical thinking. ClassicalConditioningToday Classical conditioning is used in many aspects of society and the simplicity and notoriety of Pavlov’s study makes it a valuable example. There have been many more experiments adding to Pavlov’s original. Some of these have involved timing, overshadowing, and blocking. Classical conditioning has also found its way into the realms of entertainment. The most notable example of this is the 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange written by Anthony Burgess and it subsequent 1971 movie directed by the late Stanley Kubrick. A Clockwork Orange details the activities of a young ultra-violet protagonist named Alex. Alex is "cured" of his evil tendencies via classical conditioning. He is forced to watch various films depicting ultra-violence (US) and the like , and his natural feeling of excitement or joy serves as the UR. The films are paired with a drug (CS) that makes Alex violently ill. In turn Alex eventually becomes violently ill (now the CR) when he begins to feel the excitement associated with violence.
Classical conditioning is generally used with low-involvement products. This is because classical conditioning is most effective when emotion is involved (Classical Conditioning.) Advertising for low-involvement products usually attacks the consumer through affective means because nobody wants to think (cognitive) about purchasing low-involvement products. Advertising and sales promotion (event sponsorship) are the most common forms of classical conditioning in marketing. The goal of advertisers is to get the exposed person at the grocery store or what have you, to associate the positive feeling they had for the ad with the product. This makes the positive feeling now the CR. Event sponsorship is very similar to this. With event sponsorship the sponsor wants the person viewing the event (US) to project the positive feelings (UR) they get from the event with their product. The big advantage to event sponsorship is that the person being exposed has generally chosen to be exposed to the event. Therefore, the positive emotional feeling toward the event can be intense. Anheuser-Busch using the Budweiser frogs and then lizards→ The frogs/lizards (US) are funny (UR). Budweiser is the CS. When your at the liquor store and you smile uncontrollably at the stacks of Budweiser, the humor has become the CR.
PavlovsDigestiveTheory Although the first image that comes to mind while mentioning Ivan Pavlov's name is his drooling dogs, he became a Nobel Laureate for his research in a different field. In 1904 he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his pioneering studies of how the digestive system works. Until Pavlov started to scrutinize this field, our knowledge of how food was digested in the stomach, and what mechanisms were responsible for regulating this, were quite foggy. In order to understand the process, Pavlov developed a new way of monitoring what was happening. He surgically made fistulas in animals' stomachs, which enabled him to study the organs and take samples of body fluids from them while they continued to function normally.
WhatmanypeopledontknowisthatPavlovwasawardedthe Nobel Price onpsychologyor medicine because of hisdigestivestudy, nothisclassicalconditioningdiscovery! “Precise knowledge of whathappenstothefoodenteringtheorganismmustbethesubject of ideal physiology, thephysiology of thefuture. Present-dayphysiology can butengage in thecontinuousaccumulation of material fortheachievement of thisdistantaim. Thephysiologistwhosucceeds in penetratingdeeper and deeperintothedigestive canal becomesconvincedthatitconsists of a number of chemicallaboratoriesequippedwithvariousmechanicaldevices.”- PavlovDecember 12, 1904.
Conclusion!! Conditioned reflexes had the most impact on the field of psychology of all of Pavlov’s works. In his study on the reflex regulation of the activity of the digestive glands, Pavlov paid close attention to the “psychic secretion,” which is caused by food stimuli at a distance from an animal. This finding of conditioned reflexes made it possible to study all psychic activity objectively instead of subjectively. Pavlov deduced three ideas for the theory of reflexes: the principle of determinism, the principle of analysis and synthesis, and the principle of structure. The development of these principles by Pavlov and his school helped towards the building-up of a scientific theory of medicine. Experiments done by Pavlov and his students showed that conditioned reflexes start in the cerebral cortex, which acts as the prime distributor and organizer of all activity of the organism and is responsible for the equilibrium of an animal. Pavlov's contribution to this new psychology was at a very basic level and much of his earlier research regarding the results of his experiments were erroneous to the field of psychology. However, his contributions we now know were very important to the development of modern psychology.
Behaviorism and the learning perspective are composed of many fields, but Pavlov´s discovery led to a branch of behaviorism in psychology. These psychologists believe that every single reaction, action, and emotion we present is learned. That means there is no involvement of phenotypes in our behavior, the only problem encountered is that behavior cannot be measured only observed. This implies you can’t always be 100% sure of behaviorism because a person might be acting a certain way to please you, or the person is very cunning. Even if us humans learn mostly through operant conditioning during our life period, psychologists have discovered we learn this unconsciously by classical conditioning and this makes a whole peace of our behavior. What this means is that we act certain way or fell certain way and we don’t even know why, but the classical conditioning is there. I want to give a personal example of classical conditioning: I put my tea in the microwave and turn it on, the sound of the microwave (NS). Then I ask my maid to hand me my baby bottle (US). She gets the baby bottle and pours the tea herself from the cup (CR). Now every time I put the microwave on (CS), she already has my baby bottle ready to poor the tea into(CR). P.S. I AM ALSO WORKING ON CLASSICAL CONDITIONING YOU MR!
Bibliography http://allpsych.com/biographies/pavlov.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Pavlov http://www.sntp.net/behaviorism/pavlov.htm http://www.usu.edu/psycho101/lectures/chp4learning/cartoon_dog.gif http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/ivanpavlov.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjegortAhHA http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/pavlov.htm I alsoused notes taken in class, and thepapersyougivenoutonlearningperspective.