IVAN PAVLOV. By: Michelle Espinosa. EARLY LIFE. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 at Ryazan, where his father, Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov, was a village priest. He was educated first at the church school in Ryazan and then at the theological seminary there.
IVAN PAVLOV By: Michelle Espinosa
EARLY LIFE • Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 at Ryazan, where his father, Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov, was a village priest. • He was educated first at the church school in Ryazan and then at the theological seminary there.
EDUCATION • From his father Pavlov obtained a lasting love for physical labor and for knowledge. He loved to work with his father in gardens and this interest in plants lasted his entire life. At the age of nine or ten, Pavlov suffered from a fall that affected his general health and postponed his education. When he was eleven he entered the second grade of the church school at Ryazan. In 1864 he went to the Theological Seminary of Ryazan, a school for training priests. There he studied religion, classical languages, and philosophy, and he developed an interest in science.
FAMILY • In 1881, Pavlov married Seraphima (Sara) VasilievnaKarchevskaya, a teacher, the daughter of a doctor in the Black Sea fleet. She first had a miscarriage. Then, they had a son, Wirchik, who died very suddenly as a child; three sons, Vladimir, Victor and Vsevolod, one of whom was a well-known physicist and professor of physics at Leningrad in 1925, and a daughter, Vera.
Choosing Careers • Pavlov abandoned his religious career and decided to dedicate his life to science. In 1870 he enrolled in the physics and mathematics faculty to take the course in natural science.
Becoming a Physiologist • Pavlov became passionately fascinated with physiology, which was to remain of such fundamental importance to him throughout his life. • In 1875 Pavlov completed his course with an outstanding record and received the degree of Candidate of Natural Sciences. Because of his great interest in physiology, he decided to continue his studies and proceeded to the Academy of Medical Surgery to take the third course there. He completed this in 1879 and was awarded a gold medal.
JOBS • In 1890 Pavlov was invited to organize and direct the Department of Physiology at the Institute of Experimental Medicine. This direction sustained over a period of 45 years to the end of his life. Under Pavlov’s authority the Institute became one of the most important centers of physiological research.
JOBS • In 1890 Pavlov was appointed Professor of Pharmacology at the Military Medical Academy and five years later he was appointed to the then available Chair of Physiology, which he held till 1925.
EXPERIMENTING • It was at the Institute of Experimental Medicine in the years 1891-1900 that Pavlov did the majority of his research on the physiology of digestion. With his method of research, Pavlov opened the way for new advances in theoretical and practical medicine. He showed that the nervous system played the dominant part in modifying the digestive process, and this discovery is in fact the foundation of modern physiology of digestion. Pavlov made known the results of his research in this field in lectures which he gave in 1895 and published under the title Lektsii o raboteglavnykhpishchevaritelnyteh zhelez (Lectures on the function of the principal digestive glands) (1897).
EXPERIMENTING • Experiments carried out by Pavlov and his scholars showed that conditioned reflexes originate in the cerebral cortex, which acts as the prime distributor and organizer of all activity of the organism and which is responsible for the very delicate equilibrium of an animal with its environment. In connection with the discovery of this general suggest Pavlov proceeded to investigate artificial conditioned reflexes.
DISCOVERIES • Research in Pavlov's laboratories over a number of years revealed for the first time the basic laws governing the functioning of the cortex of the great hemispheres. Many physiologists were drawn to the problem of developing Pavlov's basic laws governing the activity of the cerebrum. As a result of all this research there emerged an included Pavlovian theory on higher nervous activity.
PAVLOV’S DOGS • It was while studying digestion in dogs that Pavlov noted an interesting incidence, his canine subjects would begin to salivate whenever an assistant entered the room. Pavlov then focused on investigating exactly how these conditioned responses are learned or acquired.
CONDUCTING THE EXPIRIMENT • In a series of experiments, Pavlov set out to provoke a conditioned response to a previously neutral stimulus. He used food as the unconditioned stimulus. The sound of a bell was chosen to be the neutral stimulus. The dogs would first be exposed to the sound of the bell, and then the food was immediately presented. • After several conditioning trials, Pavlov noted that the dogs began to salivate after hearing the bell. "A stimulus which was neutral.” Pavlov wrote of the results. "We observed that, after several repetitions of the combined stimulation, the sounds of the bell had acquired the property of stimulating salivary secretion." In other words, the bell had become what is known as a conditioned stimulus that then provoked a conditioned response (salivation).
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING VIDEO • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5lCleK-PM&feature=related • This video will demonstrate a clearer explanation of how Pavlov’s experiment worked.
THE IMPACT OF PAVLOV’S RESEARCH • Pavlov's discovery of classical conditioning remains one of the most important in psychology's history. In addition to forming the basis of what would become behavioral psychology, the conditioning process remains important today for numerous applications, including behavioral modification and mental health treatment. Classical conditioning is often used to treat phobias, anxiety and panic disorders.
INFLUENCE ON POPULAR CULTURE: • Pavlov's research on conditional reflexes greatly influenced not only science, but also popular culture. The phrase "Pavlov's dog" is often used to describe someone who merely reacts to a situation rather than use critical thinking. Pavlovian conditioning was a major theme in Aldous Huxley’s novel, Brave New World, and also to a large degree in Thomas Pynchon, Pynchon's Gravity's. His theories also had and have an impact on popular American science-fiction dramas such as The X-Files and Fringe (TV series)
AWARDS • In 1901 he was elected a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. • 1904 he was awarded a Nobel Prize. • 1907 he was elected Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences. • In 1912 he was given an honorary doctorate at Cambridge University and in the following years honorary membership of various scientific societies abroad. • Finally, upon the recommendation of the Medical Academy of Paris, he was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honour (1915).
LIFE ACHIEVEMENTS • Pavlov directed all his hard energy towards scientific reforms. He devoted much effort to transforming the physiological institutions headed by him into world centers of scientific knowledge, and it is generally acknowledged that he succeeded in this attempt. Pavlov nurtured a great school of physiologists, which produced many distinguished pupils. He left the richest scientific legacy - a brilliant group of pupils, who would continue developing the ideas of their master, and a crowd of followers all over the world.
DEATH • Died on February 271936 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The cause of death is unspecified, and his Remains were Buried in Volkovskoye Memorial Cemetery, St. Petersburg, Russia. • Pavlov will always be remembered for being the father of the phenomenon of classical conditioning.
Works Cited • http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ni-Pe/Pavlov-Ivan.html • http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov-bio.html 21/10/09 • http://psychology.about.com/od/classicalconditioning/a/pavlovs-dogs.htm • http://www.nndb.com/people/656/000087395/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Pavlov • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ivan_Pavlov_(Nobel).png • http://www.ivanpavlov.com/ • http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/psychology/pavlov.html
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