Methods of Presenting Data

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Methods of Presenting Data. Prepared by: Josefina V. Almeda Professor and College Secretary School of Statistics University of the Philippines, Diliman August 2009. Most of the notes are from the “Elementary Statistics” book by Almeda, Capistrano, and Sarte, 2009. 3 Ways of Presenting Data.

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### Methods of Presenting Data

Prepared by:Josefina V. AlmedaProfessor and College SecretarySchool of StatisticsUniversity of the Philippines, DilimanAugust 2009

Most of the notes are from the “Elementary Statistics” book by Almeda, Capistrano, and Sarte, 2009

3 Ways of Presenting Data

* Textual

* Tabular

* Graphical

Textual Presentation

* is putting important figures in the text of the report

* figures may be summary statistics like the minimum,

maximum, mean, median, standard deviation, percentage,

or total

* allows us to highlight the significant figures of the study

* it confirms deductions and answers to the research

problem

Example of Textual Presentation

In terms of relative data availability for progress monitoring of the Millenium Develoment Goals, the Philippines ranked first in 2003 among the 11 countries in the ASEAN region. Based on the 2003 report of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP), the Philippines obtained a rating of 27.9% followed by Thailand with 25.2% and Indonesia with 24.6%. The Philippines ranked fourth among all countries in the Asia and the Pacific Region, with Australia topping the list with 29.1%, followed by Japan, 29.0%, and Republic of Korea, 28.7%. According to the UNESCAP, the theoretical maximum is for a country to have 767 data values (59 series x 13 years) and a country is counted to have data available when data exist for one or more years.

Source: Statistical Yearbook 2005, NSCB

Tabular Presentation

* Arrangement of figures in rows and columns for easy

* It allows us to compare and look for relationships among

the variables of interest

* The table can have frequency counts, proportions,

percentages, and other summary measures such as totals

and averages.

Formal Statistical Table

* contains all the important parts of a table like

* can stand alone even without an introductory

statement.

Definitions of the Different Parts of a Table

It is located on top of the table of figures.

Table Number identifies the position of the table in a sequence.

Table Title gives the subject, classification, time, and area

segments.

Head note specifies the unit of measurement of the data and

It is located below the table title and above the top cross rule of

the table.

Column Heading is a descriptive label for the column cells.

Panel consists of several column heads under the same

captions. Its position is at the first column of the table.

row captions.

Center head is an identifying label for the row captions.

Row caption is a descriptive label for the row cells.

Block contains row captions under the same center head.

Field is set of numerical figures in the table.

Line is a row of cell figures.

Column is a column of cell figures.

Cell is the numerical figure in the intersection of a row

Footnote is an explanatory text about a specific part or the

whole table. Its position is at the bottom of the table.

Source note gives the name of the agency that collected the

data. Its position is at the bottom of the table.

The Parts of a Formal Statistical Table

panel

TABLE NO. - Title of the Table

Line

b

l

o

c

k

k

field

*Footnote

Source note:

Table Titles
• The Title is descriptive of the table
• It answer four (4) questions about the subject matter of its table:
• WHAT?
• HOW CLASSIFIED?
• WHERE?
• WHEN?
Table 1. Amount of Pag-ibig Provident Benefits Refunded and Number of Claimants By Regional Group; January to May 2002

Universe Segment

Classification and Area Segment

Time Reference Segment

TABLE 2. Total Number of Families, Total and Average Annual Family Income and Expenditure

by Income Class, Urban and Rural in the Philippines: 2000

Example of a formal statistical table

row captions

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding footnote

Source: NSO source note

Graphical Presentation

* It is a good means of communicating the numerical figures

found in tables

* Charts facilitate analysis when it reveals probable

relationships among variables

* It allows comparison of different series or groups

* Placing figures in charts permits us to validate conclusions

Notes:

* Charts show only approximations and the general picture of

the data set.

* A good chart must be accurate, clear, simple, professional

looking, and has a well-designed layout.

* The arithmetic scale should have equal increments to

represent equal numerical units.

* The chart should have no visual illusions with the incorrect

* We should put chart titles, scale figures and labels, and

legends, if necessary.

Types of statistical charts

* line chart

* vertical bar chart

* horizontal bar chart

* pictograph

* pie chart

* statistical map

Definitions of Parts of a Chart

Chart Title

* gives the subject, data classification, time reference, and

area segment of the data set

* located above or below the chart

Coordinate Axes

* are the horizontal and vertical axes

* spacing of the units may be different for the horizontal

and vertical axes but must remain constant within the

same axes.

Point of Origin

* is the intersection of the horizontal and vertical axes.

Scale Divisions

* are the ticks to denote the scale pointsof the horizontal

and vertical axes

Grid Lines or Coordinate Lines

* may be horizontal or vertical

* must be lighter than the curves on the chart to maintain

the focus on the chart

* choice of horizontal or vertical grid line depends upon

the type of chart.

Scale Figures

* run from left to right for the horizontal axis and from

bottom to top for the vertical axis

* use multiples of five or other easy to work with

multiples for scale values

* for big scale values, limit the number of digits of the

scale figures to one or two, then; place the unit of

measurement in the scale legend

* position the scale figures near the coordinate axes

* scale figure of the vertical axis starts with zero (for

line chart and vertical bar charts)

* if we only need the upper part of the coordinate fields

to portray the data, we still retain the zero but exclude

the lower part of the figures by putting a break on the

vertical scale

Example of Putting a Break on the Vertical Axis

Figure 1a Figure 1b

8080

6060

40 40

0 0

Time Period Time Period

Scale Labels or Scale Legends

* describes both horizontal and vertical axes

Curves

* represent the plot of the data series

* differentiate several curves by using different patterns

or colors.

Curve Legends

* give the type of data series

* legend symbol follows the color or patterns selected

for a particular curve

* we prefer the use of curve labels than curve legends.

Footnote

* brief explanation to any part of the chart

* located at the bottom of the chart

Source Note

* indicates the source of the data

* located at the bottom of the chart

Line Chart

* appropriate for time series data

* emphasis is on the movement

* shows trends, patterns, forecasts

* applicable for one or more time series data for

comparison purposes

Notes for Line Chart:

• * put the variable of interest on the vertical axis and the time on
• the horizontal axis
• * put appropriate scale legends for both axes
• * position the scale figures on the tick marks
• * ratio of height of width should be 2 to 3 or 3 to 4
Figure 2. Different Parts of a Line Chart

Figure 2. Number of Reported Cases and Deaths Due to Dengue

Fever in the Philippines: 1992 to 2000

50

45

40

35

30

25

in thousands

20

15

10

5

0

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

2000

Figure title

Curve label

Grid lines

Reported cases

Border

Death cases

Scale figures

Source Note

Source: Department of Health

FIGURE 3a. Stretched Out

Vertical Axis of the Grid

20

15

Sales in Millions

10

FIGURE 3b. Stretched Out Horizontal Axis of the

Grid

20

5

15

Sales in Millions

10

5

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

TIME

TIME

FIGURE 3. Stretched Out Vertical and Horizontal Axes and Its Consequences

Figure 5a. Simple Line Chart

• has only one curve
• appropriate for one series of time
• data.
• Figure5b. Multiple Line Chart
• shows two or more curves
• to compare the trends in two or
• more data series

Court of Appeals

Supreme Court

FIGURE 5. Types of Line Chart

Column Charts

* for showing comparisons of amount of a

variable of interest collected over time

* emphasis is on the magnitude of the data set

Figure title

border

Horizontal grid lines

Scale label

Source note

Source: NSO

FIGURE 6. Different Parts of a Column Chart

* The height of the column represents the amount of a specific time.

* Columns must not be too long or too short, not too wide or too narrow.

* The space between the bars must not be too wide or narrow.

* The usual space between bars is around one-fourth of the width of the

column.

Notes on Column Charts:

* do not put a break on the vertical scale

* use scale figures that are multiples of 5, 10,…,50

* if the observed values are small, use multiples of 2

* put a scale label to identify the variable of interest

* put horizontal grid lines

* for one series of data, use only one color or pattern

* for two or more series of data, use different colors,

* avoid wavy or unconventional patterns

Types of Column Charts

* Simple Column Chart

* Grouped Column Chart

* Subdivided Column Chart

* 100% Subdivided Column Chart

* Net Deviation Column Chart

• for one time series data
• emphasizes on the amount of
• increase or decrease
• columns must have only one
• for comparing two or more time
• series data by using different

FIGURE 9c. Subdivided Column Chart FIGURE 9d. 100% Subdivided Column Chart

• components are in percentages
• facilitates comparison of two or
• more series
• or colors to show the component
• parts in percentages
• to show the component parts of
• a series of values
• or colors show the different
• components of the column.

FIGURE 9e. Net Deviation Column Chart

• for showing increases and
• decreases, gains and losses, and
• positive and negative numbers
• over time.
• vertical axis will have positive
• and negative scales

Horizontal Bar Charts

* for qualitative types of data given a specific time

* to compare the magnitudes of the different categories of

a qualitative variable

* place the categories of the qualitative variable on the

y-axis and the amount or number is on the horizontal

axis

* use vertical grid lines

Figure title

Scale label

Border

Vertical grid lines

Scale figure

Source note

Source: DOH

FIGURE 10. Different Parts of a Simple Horizontal Bar Chart

Notes on Horizontal Bar Chart:

* the length of the bar represents the value for the

category

* the bars should not be too wide or narrow or too long

or too short

* the spaces in between the bars may be one-fifth to

one-half the width of the bar

* arranging the bars according to length facilitates

comparisons

* use appropriate colors or patterns for the bars

* place the title of the chart at the center of either the

top or bottom of the chart

Types of Horizontal Bar Charts

* Simple Bar Chart

* Grouped Bar Chart

* Subdivided Bar Chart

* Subdivided 100% Bar Chart

FIGURE 11a. Simple Bar Chart

FIGURE 11b. Grouped Bar Chart

• compares the amounts of two
• or more data sets with the
• same set of categories
• number of bars per category
• depends upon the number of
• groups in the data set
• for showing the magnitude of
• the different categories of a
• qualitative type of variable
• length of the bar represents the
• value of each category

FIGURE 11c. Subdivided Bar Chart

FIGURE 11d. Subdivided 100% Bar Chart

• for various categories, we
• divide one bar into several
• components
• uses absolute numbers in the
• scale values
• It indicates the parts of a whole
• such that the parts total to 100%.

Pie Chart

* circle divided into several sections

* each section indicates the proportion of each

component or category

* useful for data sorted into categories for a

specific period

* purpose is to show the components parts with

respect to the total in terms of the percentage

distribution

* use the pie chart if there are less than 6

categories in the data set

Notes on Pie Chart:

* arrange components of the pie chart according

to magnitude

* If there is an “Others” category, we put it in the

last section

* Use different colors, shadings, or patterns to

distinguish one section of the pie to the other sections

* Plot the biggest slice at 12 o clock

Pictograph

* gives an approximation only of the actual

figures

* compares the different categories

* symbols selected should be self-explanatory

and easy to understand

* each symbol represents a number

Figure 13. Illustration of a Pictograph

Population in the Philippines for Census Years 1980 to 2000

Source: NSO

Statistical Maps

* to show data in geographical areas

* also called cross-hatched maps or shaded maps

* geographic areas may represent barangays, cities,

district, provinces, and countries

* figures in the map can be numbers, ratios, rates,

percentages, and indices.

Types of Statistical Maps

* use shading with this type of map to indicate

the degree of magnitude of the figures

* darker shading of the map means larger magnitude

and lighter shading of the map implies smaller

magnitude

Dot Map

* gives either the location or the number of

establishments in a certain geographic area

Figure 14. Illustration of a Shaded Map

Total Population in Quezon City: 1995

Legend

850 to 1,120

1,121 to 6,116

6,117 to 9,339

9,340 to 20,954

20,955 and above

Errors in Presenting Data
• Using ‘Chart Junk’
• No Relative Basis

in Comparing Data

Batches

• Compressing the

Vertical Axis

• No Zero Point on the Vertical Axis
“Chart Junk”

ü

Good Presentation

Minimum Wage

Minimum Wage

P

1960: P100.00

4

1970: P160

2

1980: P310

0

1960

1970

1980

1990

1990: P380

No Zero Point

ü

GoodPresentation

\$

Monthly Income

Monthly Income

\$

45

45

42

42

39

39

36

36

J

F

M

A

M

J

0

J

M

A

M

J

F

Graphing the first six months of income.

No Zero Point

ü

Good Presentation

Monthly Income

Monthly Income

\$

\$

45

60

42

40

39

20

36

0

J

F

M

M

J

J

F

M

A

M

J

A

Graphing the first six months of income.

Figure 5.2 Production of Selected Agricultural Crops; Philippines:1992-1999

( In 1,000 metric tons)

Figure 5.2 Production of Selected Agricultural Crops; Philippines:1992-1999

Sugarcane

Coconut

Palay

Corn

( In 1,000 metric tons)