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Summarizing and Presenting Data. Statistics. The scientific study of numerical data based upon variation in nature. Some Definitions. Observations Datum/Data Variable Statistical Population Sample. Descriptive Statistics. Statistics of Location Average (Mean) Median Mode

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Presentation Transcript
statistics

Statistics

The scientific study of numerical data based upon variation in nature.

some definitions
Some Definitions
  • Observations
  • Datum/Data
  • Variable
  • Statistical Population
  • Sample
descriptive statistics
Descriptive Statistics
  • Statistics of Location
    • Average (Mean)
    • Median
    • Mode
  • Statistics of Dispersion
    • Range
    • Standard Deviation
calculating an average6

i Xi

1 2

2 3

3 5

4 8

5 10

n

∑Xi

i=1

Calculating an Average

= X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 + X5

= 2 + 3 + 5 + 8 + 10

= 28

calculating an average7

i Xi

1 2

2 3

3 5

4 8

5 10

n

= (∑Xi)/n

X

i=1

Calculating an Average

= (X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 + X5)/n

= (2 + 3 + 5 + 8 + 10)/5

= 28/5 = 5.6

calculating a standard deviation12
Calculating a Standard Deviation

Xi (Xi)2

2 4

3 9

5 25

8 64

10100

28 202

presenting tables

TABLE I

The Effects of High Fat Versus Low Fat Diets on Rat Weights and Lengths

AVERAGE AVERAGE

DIET WEIGHT LENGTH

TYPE (g) (cm)

high fat 545.5 55.3

low fat 346.7 53.2

Presenting Tables
presenting graphs

frequency

Figure 1. Frequency histogram of number of seeds per pod for koa haole, Leucaena leucocephala, seed pods.

Presenting Graphs
presenting graphs22

weight (g)

Figure 2. Weight-length relationships of koa haole, Leucaena leucocephala, seed pods.

Presenting Graphs
rules for tables and figures
Rules for Tables and Figures
  • Each figure or table must be identified by a figure or table reference number
  • Each figure or table must have a clear descriptive title. If the figure or table refers to biological specimens, then the scientific names of these specimens are generally referred to in the title
rules for tables and figures24
Rules for Tables and Figures
  • In tables, column/row headings should clear identify the variable and its units of measure
  • In figures such as graphs, the axes should be clearly labeled and the units of measure indicated
  • In figures, such as diagrams or maps, the pertinent features should be clearly labeled
rules for tables and figures25
Rules for Tables and Figures
  • Do not cram figures and graphs into a small space on a sheet of paper; try to fill up a whole sheet of paper
  • A general rule of thumb is that each figure/table should be able to stand alone without forcing the reader to read additional text to understand it