The Thyroid Gland Jessica Soley
Where Is It Located? • The thyroid gland is located at the base of the neck. • It is found immediately in front of the trachea or windpipe.
What Hormones Does It Secrete? The thyroid gland secretes : • Thyroxine (also known as T4) • Triiodothyronine (also known as T3) • Calcitonin
What Are The Target Cells? • Thyroxine targets most body cells • Triiodothyronine also targets most body cells • Calcitonin targets bone cells.
What Are The Effects on Target Cells? • Thyroxine will stimulate increased sugar utilization in the targeted body cells. • Triiodothyronine will produce the same effects as thyroxine, regulating metabolism. • Calcitonin acts on the targeted bone cells to lower the level of calcium found in the blood.
What Is The Thyroid Gland Regulated By? The thyroid gland is regulated and controlled by: • The pituitary gland located in the brain • The hypothalamus, also located in the brain
What Are The Diseases and Disorders Associated With The Thyroid Gland? • Hypothyroidism • Hyperthyroidism • Hypocalcemia • Hypercalcemia • Goiter • Myxedema
What Is Hypothyroidism? • Caused by an insufficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. • Can lead to low metabolism, high cholesterol, weight gain, loss of energy and infertility. • In extreme cases, may lead to myxedema.
What Is Hyperthyroidism? • Caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Can be due to an underlying cause, such as Grave’s Disease. • Can lead to high metabolism, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, weight loss, chest pain, etc.
What Is Hypocalcemia? • Caused by an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood. • Can lead to muscle cramps and spasms, tingling sensation around the mouth and eventually convulsions. Also causes intense anxiety.
What Is Hypercalcemia? • Caused by an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood • Can lead to fatigue, weakness, low spirits and sometimes kidney stones.
Now Take The Dr. Oz Health Quiz! Answer the following questions about the thyroid gland and see if you learned anything from Dr. Oz today! We’ll go over the answers at the end.
1. Where is the thyroid gland located? • In the throat • In the chest • At the base of the neck • At the base of the neck, behind the trachea.
2. What hormone does the thyroid produce known as T3? • Thyroxine • Triiodothyroxine • Triiodothyronine • Calcitonin
3. What type of cells does the hormone calcitonin target? • Body cells • Blood cells • Skin cells • Bone cells
4. What effect does thyroxine have on body cells? • Increased sugar utilization • Increased metabolic rate • Increased permeability • Decreased action potential
5. What two parts of the body regulate the thyroid gland? • Hypothalamus and thalamus • Hypothalamus and pituitary gland • Pituitary gland and parathyroid glands • Pituitary gland and cerebellum
BONUS : What is an underlying cause for hyperthyroidism? Now we’ll go over the answers!
Correct Answers • c) • c) • d) • a) • b) • Low metabolism, weight gain, high cholesterol, loss of energy, infertility. B. Raise your hand if you know the answer
Dr. Oz Is Impressed! You guys are smart cookies!