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THE THYROID GLAND

THE THYROID GLAND

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THE THYROID GLAND

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  1. THE THYROID GLAND Allan Keast, ORL Surgeon

  2. Anatomy

  3. Anatomy

  4. Physiology • Thyroid hormones upregulate metabolism • T4 Thyroxine • T3 triiodothyronine • Calcium regulation • Parathyroids (up) • Calcitonin (down) • ?significance in humans

  5. Physiology

  6. Diagnostic Tests • Thyroid function tests

  7. Pathology • AETIOLOGY • Neoplastic • Autoimmune • Metabolic • Iodine • Congenital • Cretinism • EFFECT • Mass effect • Goitre • Hyperthyroidism • Hypothyroidism

  8. Pathology

  9. Cancer

  10. Treatment • Thyroxine suppression • Surgery • Radioactive Iodine • External beam Radiotherapy

  11. Surgery

  12. Surgery

  13. Surgery