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Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
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  1. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit

  2. Key Terms • Physical Fitness: attributes that allow the ability to perform physical activity • Physical Activity: bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle groups • Exercise: Sub-category of physical activity; structured, repetitive, and purposive towards maintaining or improving fitness levels

  3. Components of Physical Fitness • Cardiorespiratory endurance • Muscular strength • Muscular endurance • Flexibility • Body composition

  4. Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time • Continuous, repetitive movements • Aerobic energy production (using oxygen) • Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling

  5. Muscular Fitness • Ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes: • Strength: ability to perform at or near its maximum for a short period of time • Endurance: ability for muscle group to repeatedly contract over a long period of time

  6. How to Improve Muscular Fitness? • Overload Principle • gradually increasing the resistance can lead to increased muscular strength and endurance

  7. Types of Training Mode • Isometric(same measure) • Isotonic(full range of motion, progressive resistance) • Isokinetic(speed accommodates the movement of the exercises – expensive computerized dynamometers)

  8. Flexibility • Ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion • Failure to maintain flexibility will result in reduced motion/injury • Two forms of stretching motions • static – holding a stretch for a period of time (recommended) • ballistic – bouncing motions considered more dangerous for injury of tissues

  9. Body Composition • Make up of the body (bone, fat, muscle, etc.) • Measuring body fat % should be included in any fitness program • Cardiovascular fitness and strength training can contribute to decreased body fat

  10. Aging Physically • Physical decline occurs gradually • Differences are individual in nature • More subtle physiological changes occur between the years of 45 – 64

  11. Medical conditions influenced by physical activity • Osteoporosis (loss of calcium from bone) is more evident in middle-aged women • Osteoarthritis (wear and tear inflammation) upon weight bearing joints related to years of friction * Continuing to follow a fitness regimen is essential to minimizing age-related problems

  12. Mode of activity Frequency Intensity Duration Resistance training Flexibility training ACSM’s Recommendations for Achieving Optimal Fitness (1998)

  13. Developing aCardiorespiratory Fitness Program • Mode of Activity • Continuous activity • Using large muscle groups • Aerobic in nature • Enjoyable activity selection

  14. Frequency How Often Should One Train? • 3-5 times/week (ACSM) • More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement • Less than 3 times/week will not show improvement either

  15. Intensity of Training The level of effort to achieve cardiorespiratory fitness • ACSM recommendation of 65-90% of one’s maximum heart rate = Target Heart Rate (THR) • THR = (220 – age x 65-90%) • example of a 20 year old THR 220-20 = 200 • 200 x .65 = 130 bpm • 200 x .90 = 180 bpm

  16. Duration of Training • Length of time one needs to exercise at THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect • 20-60 minutes of continuous activity (ACSM) • The lower the range of intensity, the longer the duration should be

  17. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness) • Strength training should be done 2-3 times/week • Assists with improving body composition • One set of 8-12 reps (10-15 reps for adults over 50) geared toward fatiguing major muscle groups (i.e., legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back)

  18. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness), cont’d • Isotonic or isokinetic training progress recommended • Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing • Multiple sets could provide greater benefits

  19. Flexibility Training ACSM recommends stretching the major muscle groups: • 2-3 times/week • Should be done when the body has warmed up significantly • Static stretching is preferred over ballistic type • Hold for 10-30 seconds

  20. 3 Parts of a Training Session • Warm-Up(slow gradual increased of movement 10-15 minutes leading into stretching) • Conditioning Workout(cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and flexibility regimen following ACSM guidelines) • Cool-Down(return the body to a resting state in 5-10 minutes, i.e., walking, stretching, etc.)

  21. Exercise for Older Adults • Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50 • Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary • Physical exams would be recommended before beginning a program • Well designed programs should start slow and become gradual over time • Recognize signs of distress

  22. Sports Injuries • 5 general principles related toward prevention • start at a low level and progress gradually • if you stop exercising for an extended time, do not restart at the past level • listen to your body • follow rehabilitation instructions if prescribed by a rehab specialist • develop a preventive approach to all injuries

  23. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit