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Question one: The issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice. Learning outcome: You will know how the ownership of the production, distribution and exhibition companies affects the type of films that are being made.
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Learning outcome: You will know how the ownership of the production, distribution and exhibition companies affects the type of films that are being made.
1. How does the ownership in the film industry effect how films are produced?
2.How does the ownership in the film industry effect the distribution of film?
2. How does the ownership in the film industry effect the exhibition of films?
There are two types of ways a company can be structured in its ownership. One is referred to as vertical ownership-where the companies in that portfolio supple and depend on each other.Horizontal: Where companies are owned by the same parent company but do not rely on each other.What do you think is the benefit of vertical ownership for a media company? If they own both the production company-distributor and the means to exhibit i.e. News Corps own Fox production company a distributor and also Sky which most of their films are broadcast, so they are paying themselves money and in charge of the whole process cutting out the middle man. That’s why News Corps refers to themselves as vertically integrated media company.
Different parts of the organisation are involved in the same process
Companies do not supply or depend on each other in this model.
Watch video following video clip
The same parent companies
own films and music industry
Independent films are different from film studios because they do not have as much money to both product, distribute and market films this means they often have to work with other companies to produce their films. Some institutions need to join with other institutions which distribute films.
Independent and small studies often have to work with other studios so they can produce films examples would be Warp films who work with other parts such as Film 4 on This is England, and also when they created Four Lions which was co-produced along with Film4, Wild Bunch and Optimum Releasing, Optimum releasing also distributor the film.
Co-produced is where they work with another company to produce a film, and they raise and finance the film together.
Five major distributors dominate the UK film industry including United International Pictures, Warner Brothers, Buena vista, Twenthieth Century Fox and Sony. Most of these distributors are linked to Hollywood Production companies who make the films. They also deal with exhibitors who are no longer owned as used to be the case owned by the same Hollywood companies. These distributors for reasons of profit and bigger audiences priorities Hollywood films, and blockbusters are usually blanket release. This means smaller British films are never always shown all over Britain because they are competing against these big films which are treated more like an event.
Universal Pictures (2003) (USA) (theatrical)
Argentina Video Home (2004) (Argentina) (DVD)
Argentina Video Home (2004) (Argentina) (VHS)
Filmes Lusomundo (2003) (Portugal) (theatrical)
Mars Distribution (2003) (France) (theatrical)
RTL Entertainment (2006) (Netherlands) (TV) (first national airing) (RTL5)
Studio Canal (2003) (France) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (UIP) (2003) (Argentina) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (UIP) (2003) (Switzerland) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (UIP) (2003) (Germany) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (UIP) (2003) (Spain) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (UIP) (2003) (UK) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (UIP) (2003) (Italy) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (UIP) (2003) (Netherlands) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (UIP) (2003) (Singapore) (theatrical)
United International Pictures (2004) (Japan) (theatrical)
Universal Home Video (2004) (Brazil) (DVD)
Universal Home Video (2004) (Brazil) (VHS)
Universal Pictures (Spain) (2004) (Spain) (DVD)
Universal Pictures Benelux (2004) (Netherlands) (DVD) (VHS)
Universal Pictures Canada (2004) (Canada) (DVD) (as Universal Studios Canada)
How many different distributors would you expect to be involved with this film?
There are 21 in total if you include both cinema and home video distributors.
14 of these companies are owned by Universal (or part owned as UIP is joint owned with Paramount) – a great example of vertical integration!
The distributor will enter into an agreement with the cinema to screen the film on certain 'play-dates'. It is the responsibility of the distributor to arrange the transportation of the film to the cinema, as part of its wider coordination of print use across the UK. Logistics represents the phase of distribution at its most basic - supplying and circulating copies of the film to theatres, of tapes and DVDs to shops and video rental stores, and managing the effectiveness of the supply. The showing of films in cinemas is a time-pressured activity. Cinemas spend their money publicising film play-dates and times in local papers or through published programmes. There's an imperative for the distributor to deliver the film on time.
In this country the majority of the cinema going public are aged between 16 and 23 years old. Statistics show that they are the group which have the time and money to go to the cinema. It is this age group therefore that need to be targeted by filmmakers, distributors and exhibitors to encourage them in, and then back to, the cinema. However, the location of new multiplex cinemas has also led to the development of a more family-centered audience – who are attracted to the nearby shopping or leisure facilities as well as to the cinema itself. Baz Luhrmann's 1997 film William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet was a massive blockbuster hit, but did not have a huge publicity campaign. The film did not receive any Oscars and the reviews in the US and the UK were lukewarm. The exhibitors say that it is one of those very rare films which continue to run because the same people return to see it again and again and it is by word of mouth that they return. It will be one of the most enduring and profitable hits of 1997 with the core audience seemingly being under thirty, whilst the older cinema going public think that it is ‘the best Shakespearean film ever made.’ As the cinema's image has changed and become more up-market with high-grossing films, the price of cinema seats has reflected this change and risen dramatically. It can cost £16 or £17 to see a film in central London and yet cinema audiences continue to rise. Can you think of any reasons why this is so? If the reasons are not purely economic, then the image of cinema going must surely play a part. The multiplex complexes are popular despite often involving a good deal of travelling beyond local public transport. We must now consider whether the cinema-goer is as interested in the facilities surrounding the cinema in which the film is seen as in the actual film on the screen. .
The key advantages of digital cinema (‘d-cinema’ ) for local cinemas are:
This section will link with PowerPoint 2 case studies, which shows these in practice but a definition includes
Convergence describes two phenomena: First, technologies coming together, for example, a mobile phone you can use as a still and moving image camera, download and watch moving images on, use as an MP3 player and recorder and access the internet with. Second, media industries are diversifying so they produce and distribute across several media—for example, a newspaper with an online version and audio podcasts or the coming together of videogames with films.
We no longer live in a media world where television, videogames, films, newspapers, radio, magazines and music exist separately. For this reason it is essential that you study the impact of convergence on the film industry — the focus here is on the contemporary.
Synergy: In media revenue, synergy is the promotion and sale of a product throughout the various subsidiaries of a media conglomerate, e.g. films, soundtracks, or video games. I.e. Working Title owned by Universal made the Boat that Rocked, the Soundtrack was owned by Mercury record label which is also owned by Universal