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Music Theory

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  1. Music Theory Cadences - Chapter 5

  2. Definitions • Phrase • A substantial musical thought, which ends with a punctuation called a cadence • Cadence • A harmonic cadence is a musical punctuation that closes a phrase or section of music

  3. Cadence Types • PAC - Perfect authentic cadence • Strongest Cadence • V-I, or V-i • Both chords are in root position • Tonic is the highest sounding • pitch on the last chord

  4. Cadence Types • IAC - Imperfect authentic cadence • Strong Cadence • V-I/i, vii-I/i • Both chords are NOT in • root position • Tonic is NOT the highest • sounding pitch on the last chord

  5. Cadence Types • Half - Half cadence • Like a comma, • The final chord is V • Phrygian Half Cadence iv to V in minor

  6. Cadence Types • DEC - Deceptive • Obvsiously - it doesn’t go where you expect • V to anything other than I

  7. Cadence Types • Plagal - Plagal Cadence • “Amen” Cadence • IV to I, iv to i • Infrequently ii6 to I

  8. Cadence Types • Rhythmic Cadence • Creating a punctuation with only rhythm • Phrases often incorporate them, and they tend to fit with the harmonic cadence type

  9. Non Harmonic Tones (NHT’s) - • Tones that sound along with a chord but are not chord tones • NHT’s create dissonance - usually 2nd’s, 4th’s and 7th’s • The dissonance is calculated against the lowest sounding tone of the chord, regardless of the other pitches present (exception if NHT occurs in the lowest sounding voice)

  10. Non Harmonic Tones (NHT’s) - • Most NHT’s involve 3 pitches: • 1. Preceding Chord Tone • 2. NHT • 3. Following Chord Tone • This relationship is often defined as (1)preparation, (2)dissonance, (3)resolution

  11. Non Harmonic Tones (NHT’s) - NHT’s are distinguished by determining where the dissonance occurs • Unaccented NHT’s - dissonance occurs “off” the beat (weaker) • Accented NHT’s - dissonance occurs “on” the beat (stronger) • To indentify NHT’s we will place parenthesis around the NHT and write the abreviation for the NHT above or below the chord where it occurs

  12. Passing Tone - pt Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion, either ascending or descending to a NHT follwed by stepwise motion in the same direction to a different chord tone Unaccented pt: Occurs in any voice Stepwise motion Ascending or descending Unaccented NHT’s

  13. Neighbor tone - nt Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion either ascending or descending to a NHT and then back to the same chord tone Unaccented nt: Occurs in any voice Stepwise motion Ascending or descending Unaccented NHT’s

  14. Escape Tone - et Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion ascending to a NHT followed by a descending 3rd to a chord tone Unaccented et: Occurs in Soprano voice Stepwise motion followed by skip down (3rd) ALWAYS Unaccented Unaccented NHT’s

  15. Anticipation - ant Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion, either ascending or descending to a NHT follwed by the same tone (NHT) which occurs as part of the next chord Unaccented ant: Occurs in any voice, usually Soprano Stepwise motion Ascending or descending Must be included in the next chord ALWAYS Unaccented Unaccented NHT’s

  16. Passing Tone - pt Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion, either ascending or descending to a NHT follwed by stepwise motion in the same direction to a different chord tone accented pt: Occurs in any voice Stepwise motion Ascending or descending Occurs on the beat Accented NHT’s

  17. Neighbor tone - nt Moving from one chord tone in stepwise motion either ascending or descending to a NHT and then back to the same chord tone Accented nt: Occurs in any voice Stepwise motion Ascending or descending Occurs on the beat Accented NHT’s

  18. Suspension - sus Moving from a chord tone to the same tone as a NHT and then resolving by descending in stepwise motion to a chord tone Accented sus: Occurs in any voice 3 parts-preparation, suspension, resolution ALWAYS Accented Accented NHT’s

  19. Retardation - ret Moving from a chord tone to the same tone as a NHT and then resolving by ascending in stepwise motion to a chord tone Accented ret: Usually occurs in Soprano 3 parts-preparation, retardation, resolution ALWAYS Accented Accented NHT’s

  20. Appoggiatura Moving from a chord tone by a skip to a NHT and then resolving in stepwise motion in the opposite direction to a chord tone Accented app: Usually occurs in Soprano Usually Accented Accented NHT’s

  21. Successive Passing Tones Two passing tones filling in the space of a fourth may be accented or unaccented Changing Tones - ct Two successive NHT’s - the first leads by step from a chord tone, skips to a second NHT and then leads back by stepwise motion to a chord tone Usually unaccented Other NHT’s

  22. Pedal Tone - ped A held or repeated note that alternates between dissonance (NHT) and consonance Usually in the bass Most often the chords above change to create the dissonance If it occurs above the other voices it is called an inverted pedal tone May be either accented or unaccented Other NHT’s

  23. Summary

  24. Homework!!! • Textbook - pg. 103-107, 5.2-5.4 5.4 only nos.1 and 2 • DUE WED!!!