AP Music Theory Chapter 2
Scales • A collection of pitches in ascending and descending order
Pitch Class • A pitch class contains all of the notes of the same name REGARDLESS of octave. • Note that the caret (⌃) above each number indicates that the number represents a SCALE DEGREE.
Diatonic Scales • Defines a scale of mixed half and whole steps (and an occasional step and a half) in which EACH INDIVIDUAL TONE PLAYS A ROLE. • The first tone of the scale the the TONIC
The “Tonic” • Focal point of the scale. • Most stable note. • Point of greatest relaxation. • Diatonic melodies frequently end on the TONIC. • Diatonic used to indicate a tone that is part of a particular scale (or key signature). • Non-diatonic are tones that do not belong to the scale.
Scale Degree Names • http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/23
TONIC • 1st scale degree • Tonal center – the final resolution tone.
SUPERTONIC • 2nd scale degree • One step above the tonic
MEDIANT • 3rd scale degree • Midway between the tonic and dominant.
SUBDOMINANT • 4th scale degree • The lower dominant – the fifth tone down from the tonic (also the fourth tone up from the tonic).
DOMINANT • 5th scale degree • So called because its function is next in importance to the tonic.
SUBMEDIANT • 6th scale degree • The lower mediant – halfway between tonic and lower-dominant (subdominant). The third tone down from the tonic (also the sixth tone up from the tonic).
LEADING TONE • 7th scale degree. • Strong affinity for and leads melodically to the tonic. Used when the seventh tone appears a HALF STEP below the tonic.
SUBTONIC • 7th scale degree • Used only to designate the seventh degree of the natural minor scale (a whole step below the tonic).
Harmonic Minor Scale • Has a raised seventh degree. • Gives it more melodic thrust toward the tonic.
Melodic Minor Scale • Ascending and Descending form. • Ascending: raised sixth and seventh degrees • Descending: lowered sixth and seventh degrees.
Homework • Assignment 2.1 (in class) If you do not finish, consider this part of your homework. • Due Wednesday: Workbook 2A. • Ear – Training www.musictheory.net/exercises/ear-scale/xyybyycgspb. • 20 minutes on these exercises. Shoot for 70% pass rate. Send me your screen shots.
Scale Relationships • By products of the organizational theme of major and minor scales… • Relative Relationship and the Parallel Relationship.