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Grand Staff, Keyboard, Dynamics, Musical Terms. Music Theory. Music Theory . It is important to understand the use of music theory and its ability to aid you in the performance of music!

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music theory
Music Theory

It is important to understand the use of music theory and its ability to aid you in the performance of music!

Understanding and interpreting musical notation is important to musicians. When you understand how music functions you’ll be able to learn and understand your material at a much faster pace.

It is important to recognize the connection between the lines and spaces on a grand staff and how that relates to a musical keyboard. Not only will this aid you in your understanding of music theory, it will also help you properly utilize your voice as well.

grand staff
Grand Staff

The grand staff is usually comprised of two clefs. The Bass clef, which is the bottom clef, and the Treble clef, which is the top clef.

The Bass clef is also known as the F clef because the two dots of the bass clef enclose the F line.

The Treble clef is also known as the G clef because the final circle of the clef encloses the G line.

Treble Clef-AKA-G Clef

Bass Clef-AKA-F Clef

grand staff1
Grand Staff

Each line and space corresponds to a specific letter name.

There are lines and spaces in both the treble and bass clefs.

The Treble Clef Linesare, from bottom to top: EGBDF

The Treble Clef Spacesare, from bottom to top: FACE

The Bass Clef Linesare, from bottom to top: GBDFA

The Bass Clef Spacesare, from bottom to top: ACEG

*Your top line and bottom space should match in both treble and bass clef!


When drawing and labeling a keyboard you want to first draw a rectangle.

Then you want to draw a set of 2 and a set of 3 separated by a line.

Then draw lines down from each of the set of 2 and 3.


Once your keyboard is drawn, you need to fill it in.

To the left of the set of 2, write a C and continue up alphabetically.

Remember, the musical alphabet only goes up to G and then starts again at A!

Sharps raise pitch ½ step. Likewise, flats lower pitch ½ step.

Make sure you understand the distance between each note!

C# and Db are examples of enharmonics.

Enharmonics sound the same, but look different!





DynamicsDynamics are indicated by a letter, which stands for an Italian word, which needs to be translated into English.

Symbol Italian English

p piano soft

f forte loud

mp mezzo piano medium soft

mf mezzo forte medium loud

pp pianissimo very soft

ff fortissimo very loud

ppppianississimo very, very soft

ffffortississimo very, very loud

musical terms and symbols
Musical Terms and Symbols

Sharp Raises pitch ½ step

Flat Lowers pitch ½ step

Natural Cancels out a flat or sharp

Double Sharp Raises pitch 1 whole step

Double Flat Lowers pitch 1 whole step

Crescendo Gradually get louder

Decrescendo Gradually get softer