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  1. MUSIC THEORY This is a summary of the basic concepts that you have learned in music. This can be used for a quick review for tests.

  2. Music Theory Contents • Pitch • Musical Alphabet • Music Staff • Whole and Half Steps • Accidentals • Treble Clef • Bass Clef • Time value • Scale

  3. What Is Pitch? Pitch is the musician's term for the frequency of a note. Pitch refers to how high or low a note sounds. High pitches are on the right side of the piano keyboard and low pitches are on the left side of the piano keyboard. Pitch ranges are often referred to in terms of the human singing voice. Soprano - a high woman's voiceAlto - a low woman's voiceTenor - a high man's voiceBass - a low man's voice The accepted pitch standard is A-440, i.e., the note A above middle C has a frequency of 440 cycles per second.

  4. Musical Alphabet The musical alphabet consists of the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. These letters represent musical pitches and correspond to the white keys on the piano. As you move forward through the musical alphabet the pitch of each note gets higher. The musical alphabet is repeated a little over seven times on the 88 keys of the piano keyboard

  5. Music Staff The music staff consists of five lines and four spaces. Each letter of the musical alphabet A to G corresponds to a specific line or space. The plural of staff is staves. Staves are often connected by a brace or bracket and barlines.

  6. Tones and Semi-Tones The half step (semi-tone) is the smallest unit of pitch used in Western music. On the piano, a half step is the musical interval from any one key to its closest neighbor, either black or white. Half steps occur naturally between the two white key pairs E-F and B-C. Two consecutive half steps are called a whole step(tone).

  7. Accidentals Accidentals are symbols that alter the pitch of a note. Accidentals are placed immediately to the left of the note they affect. *N.B: Learn only the sharp, flat and Natural*

  8. Treble Clef The treble clef is also called the G clef because the clef symbol curls around the line that represents the G above middle C. The names of the treble clef lines can be remembered by the saying "Every Good Boy Does Fine." The spaces spell "F A C E."

  9. Bass Clef The bass clef is also called the F clef because the clef symbol locates the line that represents the F below middle C. The names of the bass clef lines can be remembered by the saying “Good Boys Deserve Food Always" The spaces by "All Cows Eat Grass"or "All Cars Eat Gas."

  10. Time value Summery This chart is important to create different rhythms . N.B: Form ONES: Learn the semibreve, minim, crotchet and quaver. Form TWOS AND THREES: Learn up to the semi-quaver. (Disregard the last line) X- Don’t learn

  11. What Is A Scale? A scale consists of a series of pitches arranged in ascending order, spanning an octave. The most commonly used scales are major and minor. Many other types of scales are used including Modes and Jazz Scales. Form 1: C Major Scale Form 2: C,G,D,F,Bb Major Scale Form 3: C,G,D,F,Bb Major Scale, A Minor Scale.

  12. THE END Go Test yourself! Choose any test from this website: