Cytoplasm & Cytoskeleton • Cytoskeleton: • Supports and shapes cell • Helps position organelles • Helps cell movement and division • Consists of microtubules and microfilaments • Cytoplasm: • A.K.A. Cytosol • The fluid (jelly-like) substance found throughout the cell • Helps position organelles
Nucleus, Nucleolus, & Ribosomes • The nucleus stores genetic information. • Genetic information (genes) = instructions to make proteins • The nucleolus makes ribosomes • Ribosomes exit through nuclear pores and link amino acids to make protein.
Endoplasmic Reticulum TWO KINDS: • RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum) • Found right outside the nucleus. • Studded with ribosomes • Remember: ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum (cont.) • SER (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) • Breaks down alcohol • Can break down and make lipids
Golgi Apparatus • A.K.A. Golgi Body • Looks like a stack of pancakes • Once a ribosome has linked amino acids to make a protein, the protein travels to the GOLGI APPARATUS • The golgi body processes, sorts and delivers protein.(think of a post office) • Proteins are packaged into vesicles.
Vesicles • Vesicles are membrane-bound sacs that hold materials, like protein, nutrients, or waste • Transports materials into or out of a cell.
The process of making proteins is IMPORTANT!! • Process Review • 1) The nucleus has genes, which hold instructions for making proteins • 2) Nucleolus (inside the nucleus) makes a ribosome • 3) Ribosome makes protein & travels through rough ER • 4) Golgi Body packages the protein into a vesicle and exports them
Mitochondria • Supplies energy to the cell • Think “Mighty Mitochondria” • Where metabolic processess take place
Vacuole • Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that hold materials, like water. • Plants have a large Central Vacuole, which takes up lots of water.
Lysosomes • Lysosomes contain enzymes to digest material. • Lysosomes have a license to kill.
Centrosomes and Centrioles • Centrioles are tubes found in the centrosomes. • Centrioles help divide DNA. • Centrioles form cilia and flagella. • Used for movement
Plant cells have a couple of structures that are unique to plant cells only. • Cell wall • A cell wall provides rigid support. • Made of cellulose
Chloroplasts • Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy. • Where photosynthesis occurs. • Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight & converts it into glucose (sugar) • Chlorophyll is what makes the plants green. CO2 + H20 + sunlight Sugar + O2
Eukaryote Evolution • Endosymbiosis Theory: Chloroplast & mitochondria were free-living organisms • Both were engulfed by a larger predator cell • Both gave the larger cell an advantage (make food and energy) • Predator cell provided each protection • Over time, these cells could not survive without the mitochondria & chloroplast • Evidence: Mitochondria & chloroplast contain own DNA, replicate, contain own ribosomes