Cell organelles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cell organelles
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Cell organelles

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  1. Cell organelles

  2. Cytoplasm & Cytoskeleton • Cytoskeleton: • Supports and shapes cell • Helps position organelles • Helps cell movement and division • Consists of microtubules and microfilaments • Cytoplasm: • A.K.A. Cytosol • The fluid (jelly-like) substance found throughout the cell • Helps position organelles

  3. Nucleus, Nucleolus, & Ribosomes • The nucleus stores genetic information. • Genetic information (genes) = instructions to make proteins • The nucleolus makes ribosomes • Ribosomes exit through nuclear pores and link amino acids to make protein.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum TWO KINDS: • RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum) • Found right outside the nucleus. • Studded with ribosomes • Remember: ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum (cont.) • SER (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) • Breaks down alcohol • Can break down and make lipids

  6. Golgi Apparatus • A.K.A. Golgi Body • Looks like a stack of pancakes • Once a ribosome has linked amino acids to make a protein, the protein travels to the GOLGI APPARATUS • The golgi body processes, sorts and delivers protein.(think of a post office) • Proteins are packaged into vesicles.

  7. Vesicles • Vesicles are membrane-bound sacs that hold materials, like protein, nutrients, or waste • Transports materials into or out of a cell.

  8. Golgi Body & Vesicle in action

  9. The process of making proteins is IMPORTANT!! • Process Review • 1) The nucleus has genes, which hold instructions for making proteins • 2) Nucleolus (inside the nucleus) makes a ribosome • 3) Ribosome makes protein & travels through rough ER • 4) Golgi Body packages the protein into a vesicle and exports them

  10. Mitochondria • Supplies energy to the cell • Think “Mighty Mitochondria” • Where metabolic processess take place

  11. Vacuole • Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that hold materials, like water. • Plants have a large Central Vacuole, which takes up lots of water.

  12. Lysosomes • Lysosomes contain enzymes to digest material. • Lysosomes have a license to kill.

  13. Centrosomes and Centrioles • Centrioles are tubes found in the centrosomes. • Centrioles help divide DNA. • Centrioles form cilia and flagella. • Used for movement

  14. Plant cells have a couple of structures that are unique to plant cells only. • Cell wall • A cell wall provides rigid support. • Made of cellulose

  15. Chloroplasts • Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy. • Where photosynthesis occurs. • Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight & converts it into glucose (sugar) • Chlorophyll is what makes the plants green. CO2 + H20 + sunlight  Sugar + O2

  16. Eukaryote Evolution • Endosymbiosis Theory: Chloroplast & mitochondria were free-living organisms • Both were engulfed by a larger predator cell • Both gave the larger cell an advantage (make food and energy) • Predator cell provided each protection • Over time, these cells could not survive without the mitochondria & chloroplast • Evidence: Mitochondria & chloroplast contain own DNA, replicate, contain own ribosomes