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Temeljna načela WTO-prava. Zabrana diskriminacije. E konomska teorija smatra , da svi oblici diskriminacije u međunarodnoj trgovini vode ne-optimalnoj raspodjeli sredstava : Kupnje postaju preskupe ( bacanje novaca ) Proizvodnja postaje neučinkovita

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zabrana diskriminacije
Zabrana diskriminacije
  • Ekonomska teorija smatra, da svi oblici diskriminacije u međunarodnoj trgovinivodene-optimalnoj raspodjeli sredstava:
    • Kupnje postaju preskupe (bacanje novaca)
    • Proizvodnja postaje neučinkovita
  • Cilj WTO-prava je uklanjanje diskriminacije

Između uvoza i izvoza (MFN)

Između uvoza ili izvoza idomaćih dobara/usluga (National Treatment)

osnovna wto na ela
Osnovna WTO načela
  • Drugo najbolje rješenje: Tariffication
    • Vezivanje carina (čl. II GATT)
    • Smanjivanje carina (čl. XXVIII bis GATT)
  • Iznimka: nadzor nad ne-carinskim barijerama
    • čl. XI, XIII GATT
    • Različiti multilateralni trgovinski sporazumi (MTA)
  • Načelonajpovlaštenije nacije (čl. I GATT,MFN)
  • Načelo nacionalnog tretmana (čl. III GATT,NT)
  • Transparentnost (čl. X GATT)
  • Izbjegavanje povreda
    • Zaštitne mjere (Safeguards, čl. XII, XIX, SA)
    • Antidampinške mjere (Antidumping, čl. VI, ADA)
    • Kompenzacijske mjere (Countervailing Duties,

čl. VI, XVI, SCMA)

sustav wto trgovinskih pravila
Zabrana diskriminacije

Prema van: MFN (IGATT)

Prema unutra: National Treatment (IIIGATT)

Sloboda tranzita (VGATT)

Tariffication

Transformacija svih ne-carinskih barijera (XIGATT)

Vezivanje carina (II)

Smanjenje carina (XXVIII bisGATT)

Transparentnost

Carina (IIGATT)

Svih trgovinskih pravila (XGATT + TPRM)

Sadržaja odredbi (DSU)

Vladavina prava

Jasna pravila

Tumačenje od strane međunarodnog tijela (DSU)

Međunarodno rješavanje sporova (DSU)

Iznimke

Opće politike

Opća zaštita (XXGATT)

Sigurnosni razlozi(XXIGATT)

Ekonomska politika

Regionalni sporazumi (XXIV GATT + A)

Iznimke (XXV GATT + A)

Opće zaštitne mjere (XIX GATT + A)

Zaštitne mjere platne bilance (XII)GATT

De-konsolidacija(XXVIIIGATT)

Selektivna primjena (XXXV GATT + XIII WTO)

Ne-tržišni entiteti

Državna trgovina(XVIIGATT)

Politika tržišnog natjecanja

Anti-Dumping (VI GATT + A)

Anti-Subsidies (VI, XVI GATT + A)

Razvojna politika

Preferencijalnitretman (XVIII i Dio IVGATT)

Sustav WTO trgovinskih pravila
wto koncepti
WTO koncepti
  • Temeljni ciljevi
    • Optimalna efikasnost trgovinskih barijera
    • Transparentnost i predvidivost
    • Liberalizacija
  • Carine
    • Vezivanje, odnosno utvrđivanje određene visine
      • Standstill
      • Ugovorno smanjenje
    • Smanjenje
      • Generalizirano putem MFN
  • Ne-carinske barijere
    • Tariffication, odnosno transformacija u carine
    • Ograničavanje
    • Harmonizacija
    • Smanjenje
      • Generalizirano putem MFN
  • Iznimke: određene, harmonizirane, kontrolirane
ograni ena priroda internacionalizacije
WTO sustavne (još) stvarazajedničko i jedinstveno tržište

Sa jednakim mogućnostima za sveproizvođače i proizvode koji se natječu,

u tuzemstvu ili inozemstvu

već „level playing field“ sa uvjetima koji su liberalni što je više moguće

otvarajući tako nacionalno tržište međunarodnoj trgovini

do mjere koja se smatra prikladnom i opravdanom u nacionalnoj ekonomiji.

Ograničena priroda internacionalizacije
level playing field
„Level Playing Field“
  • Najmanja ograničenja uvoza i izvoza pod uvjetom da
    • Uvozi nisu na tržište uvezeni ispod svoje tržišnecijenetako da uzrokuju materijalnu štetu (VI GATT + ADA), tzv. antidumping
    • Uvozi nisu subvencioniranitako da uzrokuju materijalnu štetu (XVI GATT + SCMA)
    • Uvozi ne ugrožavajune-ekonomske nacionalneciljeve zaštite (XX GATT)
    • Uvozi ne ugrožavajunacionalnu sigurnost (XXI GATT)
    • Uvozi ne uzrokujuozbiljnu povredudomaćih proizvođača (XIX GATT)
    • Uvozi ne utječu naekonomski razvoj (XVIII GATT, dio IV)
    • Uvozi ne utječu nanacionalne poduzetničke grane(XXVIII GATT)
    • Uvozi ne povrijede nacionalnuplatnu bilancu (XII GATT)
    • Uvozi ne proturiječepolitikama bilateralnene-liberalizacije (XXXV GATT + XIII WTO)
    • Uvozi ne proturiječe ciljevima politika sadržanima u izuzećima WTO-a (XXV GATT + Understanding on XXV)
zabrana diskriminacije8
Zabrana diskriminacije
  • Prije uvoza
    • izmeđustranih proizvoda (“tretirati druge jednako”)
    • davanje povlastica jednome trgovinskome partneru (npr. sniženje carinske stope za određenu vrstu proizvoda) povlači za sobom OBVEZU davanja iste povlastice za “slične proizvode” svim ostalim članicama WTO-a
    • Tretman najpovlaštenije nacije: I GATT, XVI GATS, 4 TRIPS
  • Nakon uvoza
    • između stranih (uvezenih) i domaćih proizvoda (“tretirati strane i domaće jednako”)
    • Nacionalnitretman: III GATT
l i st 1 gatt mfn na elo najpovla tenije nacije
čl. I st. 1 GATT: MFN (načelo najpovlaštenije nacije)
  • With respect to customs duties and charges of any kind
  • imposed on or in connection with importation or exportation or imposed on the international transfer of payments for imports or exports,
  • and with respect to the method of levying such duties and charges,
  • and with respect to all rules and formalities in connection with importation and exportation,
  • and with respect to all matters referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article III
    • Internal taxes and other charges
    • all laws, regulations and requirements affecting the internal sale, offering for sale, purchase, transportation, distribution or use of goods
  • any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by any contracting party to any product originating in or destined for any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product originating in or destined for the territories of all other contracting parties.
l iii st 1 i 2 gatt nacionalni tretman
1. “The contracting parties recognize that

internal taxes and other internal charges,

and laws, regulations and requirements affecting the internal sale, offering for sale, purchase, transportation, distribution or use of products,

and internal quantitative regulations requiring the mixture, processing or use of products in specified amounts or proportions,

should not be applied to imported or domestic products so as to afford protection to domestic production

2. The products of the territory of any contracting party imported into the territory of any other contracting party

shall not be subject, directly or indirectly, to internal taxes or other internal charges of any kind

in excess of those applied, directly or indirectly,

to like domestic products.

Moreover, no contracting party shall otherwise apply internal taxes or other internal charges to imported or domestic products

in a manner contrary to the principles set forth in paragraph 1.”

čl. III st. 1 i 2 GATT: Nacionalni tretman
l iii st 4 gatt nacionalni tretman
čl. III st. 4 GATT: Nacionalni tretman
  • 4. The products of the territory of any contracting party
  • imported into the territory of any other contracting party
  • shall be accorded treatment no less favourable
  • than that accorded to like products of national origin in respect of all laws, regulations and requirements affecting their internal sale, offering for sale, purchase, transportation, distribution or use.
  • The provisions of this paragraph shall not prevent the application of differential internal transportation charges
  • which are based exclusively on the economic operation of the means of transport and not on the nationality of the product.
l iii st 8 gatt p referen cijalni tretman nacionalne proizvodnje
čl. III st. 8 GATT: Preferencijalnitretman nacionalne proizvodnje
  • 8.(a) The provisions of this Article shall not apply to laws, regulations or requirements
    • governing the procurement by governmental agencies of products purchased for governmental purposes and not with a view to commercial resale or with a view to use in the production of goods for commercial sale.
  • (b) The provisions of this Article shall not prevent
    • the payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers,
    • including payments to domestic producers derived from the proceeds of internal taxes or charges
    • applied consistently with the provisions of this Article
    • and subsidies effected through governmental purchases of domestic products.
vezivanje carina l ii gatt
Vezivanje carina (čl. II GATT)
  • Art. II 1.(a) “Each contracting party shall accord to the commerce of the other contracting parties treatment no less favourable than that provided for in the appropriate Part of the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement. ….
  • 3.No contracting party shall alter its method of determining dutiable value or of converting currencies so as to impair the value of any of the concessions provided for in the appropriate Schedule annexed to this Agreement.”
    • Utvrđivanje gornje granice carina u međusobnim pregovorima
    • Tretman najpovlaštenije nacije
    • Vezivanje putem obračunskih metoda
    • Završne obvezujuće stope carina nalaze se u tzv. Obvezujućem rasporedu koncesija (shedule of concessions)
stupanj vezivanja
Stupanj vezivanja
  • Ne može se ići iznad utvrđene carine (Standstill) – “carinski plafon”
  • No, pojedinačna se vezivanja mogu izmjeniti („De-Consolidation“)
  • Čl. XXVIII GATT omogućava promjene ili povlačenje odvezanih koncesija,
  • Visina vezivanja predmet je periodičnih pregovora zvanih “runde”

Art. XXIII bis, 1. “The contracting parties recognize that customs duties often constitute serious obstacles to trade; thus negotiations on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis, directed to the substantial reduction of the general level of tariffs and other charges on imports and exports and in particular to the reduction of such high tariffs as discourage the importation even of minimum quantities, and conducted with due regard to the objectives of this Agreement and the varying needs of individual contracting parties, are of great importance to the expansion of international trade. The CONTRACTING PARTIES may therefore sponsor such negotiations from time to time.”

l xi ukidanje ne carinskih barijera ntb s tariffication
čl. XI: Ukidanjene-carinskih barijera(NTB‘s / „Tariffication“)
  • 1. “No prohibitions or restrictions
  • other than duties, taxes or other charges,
  • whether made effective through quotas, import or export licences or other measures,
  • shall be instituted or maintained by any contracting party
  • on the importation of any product of the territory of any other contracting party
  • or on the exportation or sale for export of any product destined for the territory of any other contracting party.”
iznimke od ne carinskih barijera ntb s
Iznimke od ne-carinskih barijera(NTB‘s)
  • Art. XI 2 GATT: “The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not extend to the following:
  • (a) Export prohibitions or restrictions temporarily applied to prevent or relieve critical shortages of foodstuffs or other products essential to the exporting contracting party;
  • (b) Import and export prohibitions or restrictions necessary to the application of standards or regulations for the classification, grading or marketing of commodities in international trade;
  • (c) Import restrictions on any agricultural or fisheries product, imported in any form, ……”
  • Neki sporedni sporazumi tiču se dozvoljenihne-carinskih barijera, kao što su to TBT, SPS, SCM Sporazumi
  • Iznimke u slučajuproblema platne bilance (čl. XII GATT): ograničenja uvoza ili izvozapotrebna su da bi se sačuvalorezerve valute potrebneza plaćanje vanjskih dugova (ali: moguća je pomoć odMMF-a)
  • Ako su ne-carinske barijere iznimno dozvoljene potrebno ih je primjenitiu skladu sanačelom najpovlaštenije nacije (čl. XIII)
izuze e l xxv gatt
Izuzeće (čl. XXV GATT)
  • “5. In exceptional circumstances not elsewhere provided for in this Agreement, the CONTRACTING PARTIES may waive an obligation imposed upon a contracting party by this Agreement; Provided that any such decision shall be approved by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast and that such majority shall comprise more than half of the contracting parties. “
  • Praksa izuzeća od obveze bila je,dugo vremena, vrlo liberalna i dovela je do neprestanog izuzimanjaod GATT – discipline.
  • Stoga Waiver – Understanding kao izmjena GATT-a 1994 predviđa automatski istekizuzeća krajem 1997 ili do kraja dozvoljenog roka izuzeća
  • čl. IX 3 WTO Sporazumapredviđa temeljitiju procjenunovih zahtjevai 75%-tnuvećinu (ako konsenzus nije postignut). Stavak 4.glasi:

“4.A decision by the Ministerial Conference granting a waiver shall state the exceptional circumstances justifying the decision, the terms and conditions governing the application of the waiver, and the date on which the waiver shallterminate. Any waiver granted for a period of more than one year shall be reviewed by the Ministerial Conference not later than one year after it is granted, and thereafter annually until the waiver terminates. In each review, the Ministerial Conference shall examine whether the exceptional circumstances justifying the waiver still exist and whether the terms and conditions attached to the waiver have been met. The Ministerial Conference, on the basis of the annual review, may extend, modify or terminate the waiver.“

izuze e od ugovornih obveza
Izuzeće od ugovornih obveza?
  • Da li se države ugovornice mogu bilateralnimsporazumima izuzetiod njihovih prava/obveza iz WTO prava? Da li mogu zaključitisporazume kojima se dobrovoljno ograničava izvoz („Volontary Export Restraint Agreements“, VER)
  • Fenomen poznatiji kao “sporazumisive zone” (“Gray Area Agreements”)
  • Učinci
    • Pritisak jakih država
    • Mijenjanje trgovinskih tokovai opterećivanje drugih država
  • Sada su sporazumi sive zone zabranjeničl. 11 Sporazuma o zaštitnim mjerama:

“… a Member shall not seek, take or maintain any voluntary export restraints, orderly marketing arrangements or any other similar measures on the export or the import side. These include actions taken by a single Member as well as actions under agreements, arrangements and understandings entered into by two or more Members. Any such measure in effect on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall be brought into conformity with this Agreement or phased out ……”

za titne mjere l xix gatt
Zaštitne mjere (čl. XIX GATT)
  • 1.(a) “If, as a result of unforeseen developments
  • and of the effect of the obligations incurred by a contracting party under this Agreement, including tariff concessions,
  • any product is being imported into the territory of that contracting party
  • in such increased quantities and under such conditions
  • as to cause or threaten serious injury to domestic producers in that territory of like or directly competitive products,
  • the contracting party shall be free,
    • in respect of such products,
    • and to the extent and for such time as may be necessary to prevent or remedy such injury,
    • to suspend the obligation in whole or in part or to withdraw or modify the concession.”
  • Nužnost: primjena MFN – tretmanai pregovori o kompenzaciji
  • Reakcija: proporcionalna suspenzijakoncesija
op e iznimke l xx gatt
Exceptions

Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures:

(a) necessary to protect public morals;

(b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health;

(c) relating to the importations or exportations of gold or silver;

(d) necessary to secure compliance with laws or regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement …

(e) relating to the products of prison labour;

(f) imposed for the protection of national treasures of artistic, historic or archaeological value;

(g) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources …..

(h) undertaken in pursuance of obligations under any intergovernmental commodity agreement ….

(i) involving restrictions on exports of domestic materials necessary to ensure essential quantities of such materials to a domestic processing industry ….….;

(j) essential to the acquisition or distribution of products in general or local short supply; Provided that any such measures …

Opće iznimke (čl. XX GATT)
sigurnosne iznimke l xxi gatt
Security Exceptions

Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed

(a) to require any contracting party to furnish any information the disclosure of which it considers contrary to its essential security interests; or

(b) to prevent any contracting party from taking any action which it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interests

(i) relating to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived;

(ii) relating to the traffic in arms, ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other goods and materials as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military establishment;

(iii) taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations; or

(c) to prevent any contracting party from taking any action in pursuance of its obligations under the United Nations Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security.

Sigurnosne iznimke (čl. XXI GATT)
  • Trgovinske barijere iznimno se dopuštaju iz razloga zaštite ne-ekonomskih ciljeva
regionalne integracije l xxiv gatt
Regionalne integracije (čl. XXIV GATT)
  • 4.The contracting parties recognize the desirability of increasing freedom of trade by the development, through voluntary agreements, of closer integration between the economies of the countries parties to such agreements. They also recognize that the purpose of a customs union or of a free-trade area should be to facilitate trade between the constituent territories and not to raise barriers to the trade of other contracting parties with such territories.
carinska unija i zone slobodne trgovine l xxiv 8 gatt
8.For the purposes of this Agreement:

(a)Acustoms union shall be understood to mean the substitution of a single customs territory for two or more customs territories, so that

(i) duties and other restrictive regulations of commerce (except, where necessary, those permitted under Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV and XX) are eliminated with respect to substantially all the trade between the constituent territories of the union or at least with respect to substantially all the trade in products originating in such territories, and,

(ii) subject to the provisions of paragraph 9, substantially the same duties and other regulations of commerce are applied by each of the members of the union to the trade of territories not included in the union;

(b) A free-trade area shall be understood to mean a group of two or more customs territories in which the duties and other restrictive regulations of commerce (except, where necessary, those permitted under Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV and XX) are eliminated on substantially all the trade between the constituent territories in products originating in such territories.

Carinska unijai zone slobodne trgovine (čl. XXIV 8 GATT)
carinska unija i zone slobodne trgovine
Carinska unijai zone slobodne trgovine

Zona slobodne trgovine (EFTA)

Slobodna trgovina – unutar

Različita carinska područja tj. različite carine – prema van

Carinska unija (EZ)

Slobodna trgovina - unutar

Jedinstveno carinsko područje tj. jedinstvenacarina – prema van

regional ne i ntegra c i je l xxiv gatt
5. Accordingly, the provisions of this Agreement shall not prevent, as between the territories of contracting parties, the formation of a customs union or of a free-trade area or the adoption of an interim agreement necessary for the formation of a customs union or of a free-trade area; Provided that:

(a) … the duties and other regulations of commerce imposed at the institution of any such union or interim agreement in respect of trade with contracting parties not parties to such union or agreement shall not on the whole be higher or more restrictive than the general incidence of the duties and regulations of commerce applicable in the constituent territories prior to the formation of such union or the adoption of such interim agreement, as the case may be;

(b) with respect to a free-trade area, or an interim agreement leading to the formation of a free-trade area, the duties and other regulations of commerce maintained in each of the constituent territories and applicable at the formation of such free-trade area or the adoption of such interim agreement to the trade of contracting parties not included in such area or not parties to such agreement shall not be higher or more restrictive than the corresponding duties and other regulations of commerce existing in the same constituent territories prior to the formation of the free-trade area, or interim agreement as the case may be; and …..

Regionalneintegracije (čl. XXIV GATT)
general agreement on trade in services gats
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
  • Trgovina uslugama uobičajeno nije predmet carina
  • Različiti nacionalni standardi za pružanje usluga su stvarne prepreke trgovini uslugama
  • Četiri vrste međunarodnih usluga (čl. 1.2 GATS):

“For the purposes of this Agreement, trade in services is defined as the supply of a service:

(a) from the territory of one Member into the territory of any other Member;

(b) in the territory of one Member to the service consumer of any other Member;

(c) by a service supplier of one Member, through commercial presence in the territory of any other Member;

(d) by a service supplier of one Member, through presence of natural persons of a Member in the territory of any other Member.”

Ili

    • Usluge koje se vrše od jedne članice bilo kojoj drugoj (npr. međunarodni telefonski pozivi);
    • Usluge koje se pružaju na teritoriju jedne članice potrošačima bilo koje druge članice (npr. turizam);
    • Usluge koje se pružaju izravno putem nazočnosti trgovačkog društva na području bilo koje druge članice (npr. bankarstvo);
    • Usluge koje se pružaju putem pojedinaca jedne članice na teritoriju bilo koje druge članice (npr. glumci, mankenke).
gats s tandard i
GATS - standardi
  • Nacionalnitretman
  • Načelo najpovlaštenije nacije
  • Transparentnost pravnih normi
  • Sloboda međunarodnog plaćanja
  • Progresivna liberalizacija
  • Posljedica za RH: Načeo najpovlaštenije nacije zamijenilo je uvjet reciprociteta u našim zakonima, pa se pri osnivanju predstavništava banaka, podružnica od osnivača iz zemalja WTO-a od njih više ne traži dokaz o uzajamnosti (sektori osiguranja, telekomunikacija, audiovizualnih usluga itd.)
trade related intellectual property rights agreement trips
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPS)
  • Trgovinska politika (Dio I)
    • Nacionalnitretman
    • Načelo najpovlaštenije nacije
  • Harmonizacija (Dio II)
    • Povećanje zaštite WIPO-sporazuma, copyright zasoftware, licenceza software, audio snimanjaifilmove,marke, patenti, stupnjevitaharmonizacija (1/5/11 godina)...
  • Izvršenje (Dio III)
    • Efektivna i transparentna nacionalna sudska zaštita
problem i budu ih rundi
Problemibudućih rundi
  • Buduća liberalizacija usluga
  • Daljnji razvoj mehanizma za rješavanje sporova
  • Trgovinaiokoliš
  • Trgovinaitržišno natjecanje
  • Trgovinaisocijalnistandardi
  • Stupnjevitaharmonizacijaprava?
  • Zahtjevi zemalja u razvoju