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Collisions: Cosmic Accelerators the sky > 10 GeV photon energy < 10 -14 cm wavelength > 10 8 TeV particles exist they should not more/better data arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes 10 4 km 2 air shower arrays ~ km 3 neutrino detectors f.halzen Energy (eV ) 1 TeV Radio

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collisions cosmic accelerators

Collisions: Cosmic Accelerators

the sky > 10 GeV photon energy

< 10-14 cm wavelength

> 108 TeV particles exist

they should not

more/better data

arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes

104 km2 air shower arrays

~ km3 neutrino detectors

f.halzen

slide2
Energy (eV)

1 TeV

Radio

CMB

Visibe

GeV g-rays

Flux

slide3
n

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TeV sources!

cosmic

rays

g g e e
With103 TeV energy, photons do not

reach us from the edge of our galaxy

because of their small mean free path

in the microwave background.

g + g e++ e-

cosmic ray spectrum
Cosmic Ray spectrum

Extragalactic flux

sets scale for many

Accelerator models

Atmospheric

neutrinos

telescope earth s atmosphere
Telescope = Earth’s Atmosphere
  • Electron/photon shower
  • Muon component
  • Cerenkov radiation
  • Nitrogen fluorescence
  • Neutrinos

Particle initiates electromagnetic + hadronic cascade detected by:

slide9
fluorescence from atmospheric nitrogen

+

_

cosmic ray

+

_

o



fluorescent light

electromagnetic

shower

slide14
Acceleration to 1021eV?

~102 Joules

~ 0.01 MGUT

  • dense regions with exceptional
  • gravitational force creating relativistic
  • flows of charged particles, e.g.
    • annihilating black holes/neutron stars
    • dense cores of exploding stars
    • supermassive black holes
slide15
Cosmic Accelerators

E ~ GcBR

R ~ GM/c2

magnetic field

energy

E ~GBM

mass

boost factor

e g b m
E > 1019 eV ?

E ~ GB M

>

~

quasars [email protected] 1 B @ 103G M @109 Msun

blasars 10

neutron stars [email protected] 1 B @ 1012G M @ Msun

black holes

.

.

grb  102

>

~

emit highest energy g’s!

slide17
Supernova shocks

expanding in

interstellar medium

Crab nebula

active galaxies jets
Active Galaxies: Jets

20 TeV gamma rays

Higher energies obscured by IR light

VLA image of Cygnus A

profile of gamma ray bursts
Profile of Gamma Ray Bursts
  • Total energy: one solar mass
  • Photon energy: 0.1 MeV to TeV
  • Duration: 0.1 secs -- 20 min
  • Several per day
  • Brightest object in the sky
  • Complicated temporal structure:

no ‘typical’ burst profile

slide21
Gamma

Ray

Burst

two puzzles or one
Two Puzzles or One?
  • Gamma ray bursts
  • Source of the highest energy cosmic rays
particles 10 20 ev
Particles > 1020 eV ?
  • not protons
  • cannot reach us from cosmic accelerators
  • lint < 50 Mpc
  • no diffusion in magnetic fields
  • doublets, triplet
  • not photons
  • g + Bearth e+ + e- not seen
  • showers not muon-poor
  • not neutrinos
  • snp 10-5sppno air showers
interaction length of protons in microwave background p g cmb p
Interaction length of protons in microwave backgroundp + gCMBp + ….

lgp = (nCMBs  ) -1

@10 Mpc

p+gCMB

GZK cutoff

forthcoming agasa results
Forthcoming AGASA Results
  • The highest energy cosmic rays do come from point sources: 5 sigma correlation between directions of pairs of particles. Birth of proton astronomy!
  • Are the highest energy cosmic rays Fe?

GKZ cutoff at ~2 1020 eV ?

particles 10 20 ev27
Particles > 1020 eV ?

new

astrophysics?

  • not protons
  • cannot reach us from cosmic accelerators
  • lint < 50 Mpc
  • no diffusion in magnetic fields
  • doublets, triplet
  • not photons
  • g+ Bearth e+ + e- not seen
  • showers not muon-poor
  • not neutrinos
  • snp 10-5spp no air showers

trouble for top-down

scenarios

[email protected] with

TeV - gravity unitarity?

10 24 ev 10 15 gev m gut
_1024 eV = 1015 GeV ~ MGUT

are cosmic rays the decay product of

  • topological defects
  • (vibrating string, annihilating monopoles)
  • heavy relics?

Top. Def.  X,Y  W,Z  quark + leptons

 >> p

  g

  • top-down spectrum
  • hierarchy n gp
the oldest problem in astronomy
The Oldest Problem in Astronomy:
  • No accelerator
  • No particle candidate (worse than dark matter!)
  • Not photons (excludes extravagant particle physics ideas)

What Now?

slide30
black hole

radiation

enveloping

black hole

slide33
cosmic ray puzzle

neutrinos

protons

TeV g - rays

~ 1 km3

high energy

detectors

~ 104 km2

air shower

arrays

  • atmospheric Cherenkov
  • space-based
  • AMANDA / Ice Cube
  • Antares, Nestor,
  • NEMO
  • Veritas, Hess, Magic …
  • GLAST…
  • Hi Res, Auger,
  • Airwatch,
  • OWL, TA…

e.g.

  • particle physics
  • and cosmology
  • dark matter search
  • discovery
  • short-wavelength
  • study of supernova
  • remnants and galaxies

also

slide34
Array

=> Very large effective area (105 m2)

=> 3-dim shower reconstruction

=> Dramatic improvements in

- Energy Resolution

- Background Rejection

slide35
STACEE

Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

Gamma-ray Astrophysics between 50-500 GeV

slide38
Infrequently, a cosmic neutrino is captured in the ice, i.e. the neutrino interacts with an ice nucleus
  • In the crash a muon
  • (or electron, or tau)
  • is produced
  • The muon radiates blue light in its wake
  • Optical sensors capture (and map) the light
optical cherenkov neutrino telescope projects
Optical CherenkovNeutrino Telescope Projects

ANTARES

La-Seyne-sur-Mer, France

BAIKAL

Russia

NEMO

Catania, Italy

DUMAND

Hawaii

(cancelled 1995)

NESTOR

Pylos, Greece

AMANDA, South Pole, Antarctica

antares site
40Km SE Toulon

Depth 2400m

Shore Base

La Seyne-sur-Mer

ANTARES SITE

40 km

Submarine cable

-2400m

online 2001 analysis
...online 2001 analysis

2 recent events:

October 7, 2001

October 10, 2001

online 2001 analysis73
...online 2001 analysis

Zenith angle comparison with signal MC

 real-time filtering at Pole

 real-time processing (Mainz)

Left plot:

 20 days (Sept/Oct 2001)

 90 candidates above 100°

atmospheric muons

atmospheric ‘s

4.5 candidates / day

(data/MC normalized above 100°)

icecube
IceTop

AMANDA

South Pole

Skiway

1400 m

2400 m

IceCube
  • 80 Strings
  • 4800 PMT
  • Instrumented volume: 1 km3 (1 Gt)
  • IceCube is designed to detect neutrinos of all flavors at energies from 107 eV (SN) to 1020 eV
south pole77
South Pole

Dark sector

Skiway

AMANDA

Dome

IceCube

Planned Location 1 km east

south pole78
South Pole

Dark sector

Skiway

AMANDA

Dome

IceCube

the icecube collaboration
The IceCube Collaboration

Institutions: 11 US and 9 European institutions

(most of them are also AMANDA member institutions)

  • Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware
  • BUGH Wuppertal, Germany
  • Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
  • CTSPS, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta USA
  • DESY-Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA
  • Dept. of Technology, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA
  • Department of Physics, Southern University and A\&M College, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
  • Dept. of Physics, UC Berkeley, USA
  • Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany
  • Dept. of Physics, University of Maryland, USA
  • University of Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium
  • Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
  • Dept. of Astronomy, Dept. of Physics, SSEC, PSL, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA
  • Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, USA
  • Division of High Energy Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA
  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel, Belgium
event in icecube
µ-event in IceCube

AMANDA-II

Low Noise:

≈ 2 photoelectrons /

(5000 PMT x µsec)

1 km

slide82
Muon events

Eµ=6 PeV

Eµ=10 TeV

Measure energy by counting the number of fired PMT.

(This is a very simple but robust method)

slide85
nt t

PeVt(300m)

t decays

slide86
Why is Searching forn’s from GRBs

of Interest?

  • Search for vacuum oscillations (nnt):
  • Dm2  10-17 eV2
  • Test weak equivalence principle:10-6
  • Test : 10-16

>

~

Cphoton - Cn

Cn

slide87
Summary

the sky > 10 GeV photon energy

< 10-14 cm wavelength

> 108 TeV particles exist

Fly’s Eye/Hires

they should not

more/better data

arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes

104 km2 air shower arrays

~ km3 neutrino detectors

slide88
n

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TeV sources!

cosmic

rays

a few more results
A few more results …
  • Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs)
    • Observation of single 3 s excess (GRB 970417a) within 1997 BATSE trigger.
  • Flux limit for unidentified TeV point sources
    • For E spectrum

Flux (>1 TeV) < 2 – 30 x 10-7 cm-2 s-1 @90%

AMANDA II will probe this flux for

n/g = 1

However, g spectrum probably softer due to

reprocessing (core) and absorption in photon BG

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