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Auger 2015. Foi o Ruben que fez o template mas eu ajudei -o no início …. Lisboa, April 2012 Jornadas LIP. Cosmic Rays in 1912. Cosmic Rays in 2001. 100 years This year!!. Cosmic Rays. 1 particle / km 2 /century. d. Pierre Auger Observatory. Hybrid Detector 1600 Detectors

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Auger 2015


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    1. Auger 2015 Foi o Ruben que fez o template mas euajudei-o no início… Lisboa, April 2012 Jornadas LIP

    2. Cosmic Rays in 1912

    3. Cosmic Rays in 2001 100 years This year!!

    4. Cosmic Rays 1 particle / km2/century d

    5. Pierre Auger Observatory Hybrid Detector 1600 Detectors (Water tanks – Cherenkov) In a 1500m grid Covered area = 3000 km2 27 (24+3) fluorescence telescope

    6. The detectors radio antenna GPS solar panel electronics PMT purified water battery box vertical muon PMT Tank full of water

    7. High energy collisions!!! Position of the Shower Maximum different from expected! Too much Muons!!!

    8. Xmax γ p Fe Heavy nuclei ? No simple model to explain it Wrong Physics models ?

    9. N N~ E0.95

    10. N

    11. The challenge... Mass composition Hadronic models Xmax N

    12. Increase information How can we improve our knowledge? More statistics (just waiting) won’t solve it! Need better! Better e.m. Profile Better FD em profile muonic profile Better muon info.

    13. Auger 2015 Increase Information Higher performance of existing detectors Introduce new detectors

    14. Better FD Towards a FS with SiPM Collaboration LIP, Aachen, MPI, Granada, Palermo, to develop a SiPM based Focal Surface PMT typ. peak PDE 25% SiPM could reach ~60% Measurement of a “Dolgoshein” prototype

    15. Better FD Towards a FS with SiPM Collaboration LIP, Aachen, MPI, Granada, Palermo, to develop a SiPM based Focal Surface

    16. ReadoutElectronics 1m2105channels compactelectronics • MainOptions: • Digital PhotonCounting • Signalsdigitizedearly • Data transmittedbyhigh-speed links • Modular scalable design L1 L1 L1 L1 HighSpeed L2 L2 L2

    17. Frontend Readout ASIC Baseline Option ASIC MAROC3 (2009) 64 low impedance preamplifier Variable gain for each channel Minimum threshold at 100% trigger efficiency: 10 fC 64 logic trigger outputs 12 bits ADC (serial output: pedestal and maximum per channel) Orsay Microelectronics Group Associated

    18. DAQ and Trigger Architecture

    19. Better muon information Add an aditional layer for the muons... e.g. RPCs under the tanks

    20. Better muon information Add an aditional layer for the muons... e.g. RPCs under the tanks R&D in Coimbra for RPC chambers for Auger

    21. Better muon information Add an aditional layer for the muons... e.g. RPCs under the tanks Electronics based on the MAROC ASIC RPC signal MAROC digital output MAROC analog sum

    22. CRIVO A small Cosmic Ray detector Array of scintillators Installed at DF-IST rooftop Under calibration... Next: Install RPCs

    23. Proton cross-section We have to do it at higher energies

    24. The Biggest accelatorsgive access to Particle Physics @ 100 TeV scale Thank you. Foi o Ruben que fez o template mas euajudei-o no início… Lisboa, April 2012 Jornadas LIP

    25. END

    26. Number of muons Inclined events Multivariate and Universality N~ E095 A significant excess of Muons is observed that can not be explained by composition alone

    27. The results – What? Xmax distributions

    28. Extensive Air Showers Groundarray FluorescenceTelescope CherenkovTelescope SpaceTelescope

    29. The results – How many?

    30. The detectors: Fluorescence Detector

    31. The detectors: Fluorescence Detector “Time Trace” Light profile

    32. The results – How many? Ankle p N Δ π g 2.7K GZK like suppression !!!

    33. The results – from where? 28 out of 84 correlate Vernon-Cetty-Vernon AGN catalog

    34. Observables Proton / Iron ? Hadronic Interactions Xmax --- Particles at ground --- • Primary particle is infered through the shower behavior • Xmax, Signal at ground... • High energy Hadronic Interactions • Rule the shower development • Large uncertainties • Extrapolation from accelerator data (forward region) • New phenomena? • E=1019 eV  ( ) • Multivariate analyses

    35. Data and Simulation • Pierre Auger Observatory Data • Average Xmax and its fluctuations • Number of muons at ground • Simulation • CONEX (50 000 shower per energy per primary) • QGSJET-II.03

    36. <Xmax> and RMS(Xmax)

    37. <Xmax> and RMS(Xmax) Light Heavy

    38. Number of muons at ground Vertical Showers Inclined Showers • Muon deficit in EAS simulations for ALL hadronic interaction models even considering iron primaries • Indication of incorrect description of high energy hadronic interactions • Nμ is also sensitive to composition β

    39. Exploring possible Scenarios • Mass Composition Scenarios (bimodal) • Pure Proton to pure Iron • Mixed Composition to Iron • Change on Hadronic interaction physics • Cross-section increase In line with many other works Here considering only simple and extreme scenarios

    40. Exploring possible Scenarios • Mass Composition Scenarios (bimodal) • Pure Proton to pure Iron • Mixed Composition to Iron • Change on Hadronic interaction physics • Cross-section increase

    41. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    42. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    43. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    44. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    45. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    46. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    47. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    48. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    49. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

    50. But if just proton and iron...  : iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction