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LHC-Collider Physics and Simulation for High Energy Cosmic Rays. J. N. Capdevielle , APC, University Paris Diderot capdev@apc.univ-paris7.fr. Outline. General properties of giant EAS The extrapolation at UHE The treatment of inclined GAS in AGASA

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LHC-Collider Physics and Simulation for High Energy Cosmic Rays


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    1. LHC-Collider Physics and Simulation for High Energy Cosmic Rays J. N. Capdevielle, APC, University Paris Diderot capdev@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2. Outline • General properties of giant EAS • The extrapolation at UHE • The treatment of inclined GAS in AGASA • The treatment of the vertical energy estimator • Amendments of experimental data and general convergence to GZK prediction • Mass composition at UHE

    3. Hybrid approach to the primary cosmic ray composition R. Attallah1 and J.N. Capdevielle2 1Physics Department, Univ. of Annaba, Algeria 2APC, Univ. of Paris 7, France

    4. Introduction • The chemical composition of primary cosmic rays furnishes crucial clues on their sources; • A direct measurement of their high energy component runs out of statistics; • Above 1014 eV, observation must resort to indirect method (air shower measurements);

    5. Chemical composition • Air shower interpretation is hampered by our lack of knowledge of the particle interaction physics; • Air showers present very large fluctuations; • Classic air shower experiments only sample the air shower at one depth. • Extensive fitting and interpolation are needed.

    6. A novel technique by IACT • Ground-based detection of the Direct Cherenkov (DC) light emitted by the primary particle; • The intensity of this light is proportional to Z 2; • Measurement of the energy spectrum for cosmic ray nuclei in the range 13-200 TeV (H.E.S.S.); • Limited energy window.

    7. (http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/hfm/HESS)

    8. Hybrid detector • DC-light detection can be combined with a classic air shower experiment in order to measure on an event-by-event basis: 1. the mass and energy of the primary particle; 2. the particle content of the shower; • to test experimentally the different critera used for the identification of primary cosmic rays. • to approach the elemental composition around the knee with validated criteria.

    9. Monte Carlo calculations • CORSIKA package v. 6.617 (Heck et al. 1998). • Two independant high energy hadronic interaction models: 1. QGSJET v. II-03 (Ostapchenko 2006) 2. SIBYLL v. 2.3 (Engel et al. 1999). • Fluka model v. 2005 at low energy (Ferrari et al. 2005).

    10. Experimental conditions • Primary particles considered: p, N, Fe (vertical). • Primary energy: 50 TeV and 200 TeV • Observation level at H.E.S.S. altitude (1830 m; 830.5 g/cm2). • Detection energy thresholds: E 300 MeV, Ee 2 MeV • 100 showers per run.

    11. Electron lateral distribution

    12. Muon lateral distribution

    13. Hadron lateral distribution

    14. Number of particles (50 TeV)

    15. Number of particles (200 TeV)

    16. Electrons vs. positrons

    17. Electron size

    18. Muon size

    19. Primary Energy

    20. Conclusion • DC-light detection can be combined with a classic air shower experiment. • Such a hybrid detector is able to test the different criteria used for primary cosmic ray identification. • Validated criteria can be used to study the cosmic ray compostion around the knee.

    21. Total p-p Cross-Section ~ ln2 s • Current models predictions: 90-130 mb • Aim of TOTEM: ~1% accuracy COMPETE Collaboration fits all available hadronic data and predicts: LHC: [PRL 89 201801 (2002)]

    22. non-diffractive minimum bias events Acceptance dNch/dh [1/unit] Energy(GeV) per event Charged particles per event  = - ln tg  single-diffractive events All detectors with trigger capability Trigger acceptance > 95% for all inelastic events

    23. Concorde Fox Charlie, Roissy, Octobre 78 Une centaine d’AR Paris New York pour exposer à 17000m d’altitude deux chambres à émulsion (pendant 270H).

    24. Chambers for Balloon and Airborne Experiments • Evis=E(h)+E • Energy threshold • Stratospheric 200 GeV • Mountain altitude 2-4 TeV • Particle physics observed in XREC • - n, E, <r>, < E r> • nch, EH, <rH>, < EH rH> • - Energy and PT distributions • - pseudorapidity distributions • - dN/d=f() • - correlations <PT>, dN/d • (more or less completely) • - direct interaction in the chambers • - near direct interactions with • localized origin

    25. CERN Courier Octobre 1981 • Début des expériences Octobre 1978 • Une collision de 106 GeV (forte multiplicité, spikes dans la distribution de pseudo-rapidité)

    26. Chambres à émulsion sur Concorde • Impact d ’un photon de 200 TeV, l ’un des 211 g d ’une collision de 107 GeV. • Evènement à émission coplanaire. • 50ch sur A80 5000H • 500 p 1PeV, 7 10 PeV • 250 familles g , 10 PeV , 3 au LHC (100 PeV)

    27. Xray film under 8 c.u. Lego plot with the 4 most energetic Gamma ’s JF2af2 (Concorde)

    28. Jf2af2 (Concorde) • 34 g ’s aligned • about 50% of the visible energy

    29. Very large tension for the diquark partners ?

    30. 3 most energetic clusters in JF2af2

    31. One possible configuration • External ’s and total <ER> factors indicate a common origin under 2.2km above the chamber • Like in Strana, we need pt ‘ s > 10 GeV/c for the emission of 3 high energy hadrons generating A, Ap, B • Threshold energy for valence quarks in alignment ~200 GeV in c.m.s.(proton of 1016 eV in Lab)

    32. Most energetic events above LHC energy • Tadjikistan • Andromeda • Fianit • normal hadron and g ’s content reproduced with CORSIKA (1500 g ’s in Fianit, but few chances to reproduce the 10 PeV g ’s in the halo)

    33. ANDROMEDA

    34. TADJIKISTAN

    35. Comment • Coplanar emission , even if partly explained by fluctuations, needs more attention • p-A and A-A collisions have to be considered, for peripheral collisions (RHIC results) to point out QGP signatures in spikes or very large Pt .Semi inclusive data consequences may be important • New experiements(LHC energy, forward region) with emulsion bricks can be performed with air cargo liners and at mountain altitude