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Becoming a World Power: 1890-1913

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  1. Becoming a World Power: 1890-1913

  2. What is Imperialism? A policy in which a stronger nation works to create an empire Emerged in the mid-1800s through the early 1900s How is this done? By dominating weaker nations/territories economically, politically, culturally, or militarily Growth of Imperialism

  3. In the late 1800s, there was a large increase in imperialistic activity as a result of the following factors: Economic Nationalist Military Humanitarian The U.S. joined in the competition for territories once it became a world power Why Imperialism Grew

  4. Economic Factors • An overall desire for raw materials & natural resources: • World: • The growth of industry in Europe created an increased need for natural resources (rubber & petroleum) • Manufacturing nations needed new markets in which to sell their goods • U.S.: • By the late 1800s, Americans had more food & goods than they could consume • New markets could solve economic problems • Gain political influence by investing in other countries

  5. Nationalistic Factors • Imperialists around the world used ideas of racial, national, and culture superiority to justify imperialism • Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest) was used to justify this: certain nations & races were superior to others and were destined to rule over inferior peoples & cultures • Competition among European nations came out of a strong devotion to one’s nation (nationalism) • Americans feared the U.S. was losing its vitality, energy, & spirit • A quest for a lager empire could restore the country • Monroe Doctrine: From 1823, it discouraged European intervention in the Western Hemisphere

  6. Military Factors • To expand and protect their interests around the world, imperialist nations built up their military strength. • World: • Advances in military technology in Europe produced armies & navies superior to those in Africa & Asia • The navies required bases around the world for receiving fuel & supplies

  7. Military Factors • U.S.: • Alfred T. Mahan: • Military historian & naval officer • Played a key role in transforming the U.S. into a naval power • In The Influence of Sea Power Upon History he said that great nations have powerful navies • Called on U.S. to build a modern fleet • Create a strong U.S. Navy—build modern steam-powered, steel-hulled ships to protect overseas trade • Economic future depended on naval protection • Led to an increased budget—one of most powerful navies in the world • By 1900, U.S. had 3rd largest navy

  8. Humanitarian Factors • Imperialism spread as a result of the goals of humanitarians: • World: • Colonial officials, doctors, & missionaries believed it was their duty to spread the “blessings” of Western civilization • Worked to spread its law, medicine, & Christian religion • U.S.: • Used Social Darwinism to justify expansion: • Believe expansionism was the nation’s destiny, would spread democracy & Christianity, and introduce modern civilization to other peoples around the world

  9. Americans who pursued expansion focused on 3 main areas of the world: Latin America Islands in the Pacific China Eyes on the Prize

  10. Opening up Japan • Matthew Perry: U.S. naval commodore who successfully opened Japan up to trade with the U.S. in 1854 • Allowed U.S. to expand in the Pacific with trade and naval bases

  11. Involvement in Latin America • U.S had strong interest there as a result of the Monroe Doctrine: • Declaration by President Monroe on 1823 • Stated that the U.S. would oppose efforts by any outside power to control a nation in the Western Hemisphere • Within the U.S. a sense/feeling of intense national pride and a desire for an aggressive foreign policy developed—known as jingoism

  12. The Spanish-American War • Military conflict between the U.S. and Spain • Marked the start of U.S. imperialism • The war began after the American demand for Spain's peaceful resolution of the Cuban fight for independence was rejected • Expansionist sentiment & Monroe Doctrine motivated intervention U.S. Army War with Spain campaign streamer.

  13. What Led to U.S. Involvement? • Yellow Press: Newspapers that used sensational headlines & exaggerated stories in order to promote readership • Rival newspapers publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were main source • Heightened the public’s dislike of the Spanish government • Americans sympathized with the Cuban rebels who were compared to the patriots of the American Rev.

  14. What Led to U.S. Involvement? • deLome Letter: • American newspapers printed a letter from Spanish ambassador de Lome that spoke unfavorably of President McKinley • U.S.S. Maine: • Battleshipsent to Havana when riots broke out • In February, an explosion sank the Maine killing over 250 Americans • Americans blamed Spanish and called for war

  15. The USS Maine entering Havana Harbor on January 25, 1898. The Ship would explode three weeks later

  16. Wreckage of the Maine, 1898 The recovered mast of the USS Maine is placed as an Arlington National Cemetery memorial to those who died during the 1898 sinking.

  17. Congress recognized Cuban independence Authorized force against Spain Began in April 1898 Teller Amendment: Stated that the U.S. had no intention of annexing Cuba U.S. destroyed Spain’s entire Pacific fleet American troops invaded Cuba Teddy Roosevelt led 1st Volunteer Cavalry: Rough Riders The Spanish-American War

  18. The Rough Riders were a group organized and commanded by Roosevelt Included cowboys, miners, policemen, and college athletes Roosevelt led Rough Riders in a charge up San Juan Hill Most famous incident of the war Included African Americans Spanish surrendered shortly after San Juan Hill

  19. Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill by Frederic Remington (1909)

  20. Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Hill, Cuba, Spanish-American War, 1898. The charge up San Juan Hill made Roosevelt, along with Admiral Dewey of Navy who experienced great success in the Philippines, the heroes of the war and thrust TR into the national spotlight.

  21. April-July 1898 Treaty of Paris: Signed in Dec. 1898 to end the war Spain recognized Cuban independence U.S. gains Guam & Puerto Rico U.S. purchased Philippines for $ 20 million Teller Amendment prevented the U.S. from taking Cuba “A Splendid Little War” --Sec. Of State John Hay

  22. Important stepping stone to Asia Overthrew Queen Liliuokalani (Lee-lee-oo-al-kal-ani) Annexed (taken in) in 1898 Became the 50th state in 1959 7 months after Alaska Annexation of Hawaii

  23. An Open Door to China • European nations and the U.S. were interested in creating spheres of influence: areas of economic & political control (by an outside power) in China • Britain, France, Germany, & Russia had carved China into spheres of influence to avoid competing for trade • Within its zone, each power had privileged access to Chinese ports and markets • This system threatened to limit U.S. trade in China

  24. Leave the Door Open… • John Hay: • U.S. Secretary of State • Proposed the Open Door doctrine to keep the doors of trade open for the Americans, who were too late to profit from the carving up of China. • U.S. urged the Open Door Policy: favored open trade relations between China & other nations • Would ensure that the U.S. would have equal access to China’s millions of consumers • Many European countries rejected this idea

  25. Boxer Rebellion • Presence of foreigners caused resentment and some in China joined secret societies • Societies celebrated traditional customs & criticized Western ways • One society, the Righteous and Harmonious Fists had the nickname “boxers” for their martial arts training • Boxers killed foreign missionaries in May 1900 and violence against foreigners broke out • Prompted the governments of Europe and America to send troops to stop rebellion U.S. helps put down rebellion • After putting down rebellion, European powers forced China’s government to pay for damages • Fueled Chinese nationalists

  26. Puerto Rico • Foraker Act:law establishing a civil government in Puerto Rico • Puerto Rico had been under direct U.S. military rule • Act authorized the U.S. president to appoint a governor and part of the legislature

  27. Cuba • Platt Amendment: Set of conditions under which Cuba was granted independence in 1902 • Added to Cuban Constitution • Included restrictions on rights of Cubans • Granted the U.S. the right to intervene to preserve order in Cuba

  28. President Roosevelt wanted to build a canal across the isthmus (small piece of land connecting to larger pieces of land) of Panama Would provide a shorter route between the Atlantic & Pacific Would make shipping faster Ease naval transportation U.S. in Latin America – “The Land Divided, the World United”

  29. Americans try to purchase land from Columbia (controlled Panama at this time) Columbia would not sell America started revolt for Panamanian independence Gave aid to Panamanians Angered many Americans Roosevelt responds “I took the Canal Zone and let Congress debate; and while the debate goes on the canal does also.”

  30. Negatives of the Canal: Yellow Fever and Malaria, tropical diseases U.S. sends doctors to help control diseases Canal opens in 1914 (as war breaks out in Europe) Completed ahead of schedule Reduces the amount of time and shipping costs Panama Canal

  31. “Speak softly & carry a big stick; you will go far.” --Teddy Roosevelt

  32. Big Stick Diplomacy • Roosevelt’s policy of creating & using, when necessary, a strong military to achieve America’s goals • Roosevelt Corollary: • 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine—asserted the right of the U.S. to intervene in Latin American nations • US becomes “international police force” – (TR) • Steps in when countries seem unstable

  33. Teddy Roosevelt's "Big Stick" included a worldwide tour of the American fleet to project American Power. Sent in December 1907 ½ the U.S. Navy was sent on a cruise around the world Demonstrated the nation’s naval power The Great White Fleet

  34. The Great White Fleet

  35. Became President in 1908—not as aggressive as Roosevelt Worked to maintain the open door to Asia & preserve stability in Latin America Dollar Diplomacy: Encouraged American investment abroad to maintain order Did not always have profitable results Taft & Dollar Diplomacy“Substituting dollars for bullets”

  36. Moral Diplomacy • Stated that the U.S. would not use force to assert influence in the world, but would instead promote human rights • Stated by President Woodrow Wilson • Attempted to change the direction of foreign policy instead of seeking additional territories • Still forced to use military force in various areas