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Domestication and Agriculture: The Neolithic Revolution. SW Asia, China, Americas Cultural materialism: Marvin Harris = “the primacy of the infrastructure,” i.e., changes in socio-politics (structure) and worldview (superstructure) result from changes in techno-economies (infrastructure)
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Gautama Buddha: 563 BC (Nepal) to 483 BC (India)
Jesus Christ: 7–2 BC (Bethlehem) to AD 26–36 (Golgatha)
Mohammad: AD 570 (Mecca) to 632 (Medina)
Native American, Sub-Saharan African, Pacific Islands
Large, developed civilizations in many non-Western settuings seen as influenced from elsewhere (Europe, Near and Middle East) until mid-19th century, and later in some cases (Amazon)
“The Age of Discovery”
Peoples in Americas, Africa, and many other regions viewed as barbarians, or even sub-human (Papal bull of 1536 declares Native Americans human)
Manifest Destiny & the ideology of colonialism
“where everyman is Enemy to everyman. … there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain … no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worse of all, continual feare, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short”
“the savage people in many places of America, except the government of small families … have no government at all, and live at this day in that brutish manner, as I said before”
World was America”
John Locke, 1690
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract (1762)
“The first man who, having fenced in a piece of land, said ‘This is mine,’ and found people naive enough to believe him, that man was the true founder of civil society. From how many crimes, wars, and murders, from how many horrors and misfortunes might not any one have saved mankind, by pulling up the stakes, or filling up the ditch, and crying to his fellows: Beware of listening to this impostor; you are undone if you once forget that the fruits of the earth belong to us all, and the earth itself to nobody.”
Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (1754)
Civilization: primitive and civilized
Lewis Henry Morgan: Savagery,
Barbarism (Agriculture) & Civilization (Writing)
Morgan saw property as the root of civilization
Areas covered in this segment (for test 1)