Scientific Revolution1600 – 1700s • The spirit of questioning from the Renaissance led to the questioning during the Scientific Revolution
Sir Francis Bacon • The father of the “Scientific Method” – • Scientists examined natural laws governing the universe.
The Scientific Method • 1. Observation • 2. Hypothesis • 3. Experimentation to test the hypothesis • If proven, it becomes scientific law (like the “Law of Gravity”)
Nicolaus Copernicus • Challenged the traditional Catholic Church teaching of the “geocentric theory”
Galileo Galilei • Italian astronomer who provided evidence supporting the heliocentric theory using the telescope.
Sir Isaac Newton • Used mathematics to prove existence of gravity and support heliocentric theory
Thomas Hobbes • Wrote Leviathon (1651) • Argued that absolute monarchy is the best form of government since without it, there would be chaos and disorder. • While people give up freedom, they gain a society with order.
The Enlightenment • It was an 18th century movement among writers and intellectuals that applied natural law to politics and government.
Characteristics of the Enlightenment • Enlightened Philosophers challenged traditional authority • (ex. The church & monarchs).
Ideas of the Enlightenment • Democracy, or rule by the people, as an alternative to absolutism, which denied people their basic natural rights. • Laissez-faire capitalism, an economic system which the government has little control, as an alternative to mercantilism, which restricted free enterprise.
John Locke • Two Treaties of Government. • All people had naturalrights to life, liberty, and property. • The ideas of Locke were used to justify the American and French Revolutions.
John Locke • The king received his power to rule from the people who were entitled to rebel if he did not rule in their interest. • Government by the consent of the people.
Baron de Montesiquieu • In Spirit of Laws Montesquieu encouraged the separation of government into three branches: • Judicial • Legislative • Executive
Voltaire-Free Speech • Authored Letters on the English. • Favored the idea of a limited monarch. • “I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
Jean Jacques Rosseau • The Social Contract favored government based on the “generalwill” of the people. • “Man is born free, and everywhere is in chains”.
Adam Smith • Authored The Wealth of Nations.-Rejected the idea of gov’t control over the economy. • Laissez-faire capitalism • Supply/demand would regulate economy.
Results of the Enlightenment • The Enlightenment inspired revolutions in: • America (1775) • France (1789) • Latin America (1800)
Results of the Enlightenment • This lead to a change in the basic relationship between people and their government,
a) socialism c) the divine right monarchies b) imperialism d) the natural rights of man The writings of the Enlightenment philosophers in Europe encouraged later political revolution with their support of
Louis XVI • Monarch who reigned from 1774 to 1793.
Marie Antoinette • Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria. • Her marriage to Louis served to seal an alliance between France and the Hapsburgs.
The First Estate (clergy) and Second Estates (nobles) had rights and privileges denied to the Third Estate. A rigid class system created inequality. Social Causes
Social Causes (continued) • The rise of the Bourgeoisie: 1. The wealthy and educated middle class resented their status. 2. The Bourgeoisie became the leaders of the revolution. Bourgeoisie Peasants Professionals
Political Causes • Absolutism - French Kings ruled with absolute power. • The Enlightenment - The Philosophers of the Enlightenment promoted democracy and wrote about the abuses of French Kings (ex. Locke’s ideas on “natural rights – life, liberty and property.” • Lack of power – Each estate had only one vote.
Political causes (cont’d) • The success of the Puritan (English Revolution) and American Revolutions inspired the French to challenge the king.
Economic Causes • Taxation - The First and Second Estate did not pay taxes. • Bad Harvests - led to severe food shortages. • France was bankrupt.
A financial crisis forced Louis to call a meeting of the Estates General (French Parliament).
The Third Estate • The Third Estate demands a more democratic National Assembly. • Louis rejects their demands and locks them out.
The Tennis Court Oath • The Third Estate reconvenes on a tennis court. • The Third Estate vows to stay together until a constitution is created.
The Bastille • On July 14, 1789 a mob storms and captures the Bastille. • The old regime ends and the French Revolution has begun.
The National Assembly • The National Assembly is created. • Temporary Gov’t. • Suspends the privileges of the 1st and 2nd estates. • A constitution is written with a limited monarchy.
Declaration of the Rights of Man • Adopted by National Assembly • Guaranteed all men were born free and with equal rights, liberty, property, and security.
Life, Liberty, and Fraternity became the rallying cry of the French Revolution.
The Flight to Varennes • On June 20, 1791 Louis and his family attempt to flee France. • Louis was caught and returned to Paris on June 25, 1791.
Political Groups • Girondins were the moderates who supported a Limited monarchy. • Jacobins were the radicals favored a republic.
The Execution of Louis XVI • Neighboring countries invade France. • Believing Louis conspired with the invasion and fearing a return to absolutism Louis is executed on Jan. 21, 1793.
Maximilien Robespierre • Robespierre’s and the Jacobins controlled France during The Terror. • The Jacobins formed The Committee of Public Safety
Marie Antoinette • Marie Antoinette was accused of conspiring with Austria to overthrow the revolution. • She was found guilty of treason and guillotined in October 1793.
The Terror • The Committee of Public Safety virtually governed France for a year. • During this time anyone suspected of being disloyal to the revolution were hunted down, tried, and executed.
The Terror • In fear for their own lives members of the Committee eventually turn against Robespierre and he is guillotined in July 1794.
The Directory1795-1799 • After the death of Robespierre the Jacobins are overthrown. • Moderates again control France. • France’s new government is called The Directory.
Napoleon Bonaparte • Napoleon overthrew The Directory in a Coup d’etat (military overthrow) in 1799
Rise to Power • The Revolution had thrown France into chaos and disunity. • The French people supported theabsoluterule of Napoleon believing it would return the country to normalcy.
Centralized Government • Napoleon set up an efficient centralized government.
The Napoleonic Code • Established a code of law that preserved revolutionary changes in the legal system. • Trial by juryEqual treatment before the lawReligious freedom
Nationalism • Napoleon set up a system of public schools to encourage nationalism.
Napoleons Empire • Napoleon created a great empire through military conquest. • By 1808 he dominated most of the European continent. • in Europe.