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Presentation On Polyamides Nylon - 6

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  1. Presentation On PolyamidesNylon - 6 Year 2011 - 2012 Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta (80) Mr. Ranjit Makwana (79) Mr. Harsad Kothiya (78) Guided By Department Of Industrial Chemistry

  2. Contents: • Introduction • Reflections of the Nylon 6-6 History • Synthesis • Experimental procedure • Application Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta 3

  3. 1.1 Basic Information Monomers : Dicarboxylic Acid, Diamines Polymerization : Polycondensation Reaction Major Uses : Mainly In Manufacture Of Fibres Structure : Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  4. 1.2 Why Nylon 6 ? • Why Nylon 6-6 (Polyamide 6) ? • A black box embodied in our lives • Wide influence on society • Change of relation between lab and commercial industry • More recent innovation • very well documented Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  5. 1.3 Utilization of Nylon 6 • The utilization of Nylon 6: • Textile industry (“wash and wear”) • Carpets • Outdoor clothing (inc. tents, backpacks etc) • Tires, etc… Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  6. 1.4 Properties of Nylon 6-6 • Chemical & mechanical properties of Nylon 6: • High tensile strength (stretchable without deformation) • Excellent chemical resistance • High mechanical strength and heat resistance • Easy to process • Can be dyed easily Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  7. 1.5 Properties • Properties • Glass transition temperature : 47oC. • Melting temperature : 220oC. • Amorphous density at 25oC : 1.084 g/cm3. • Crystalline density at 25oC : 1.23 g/cm3. • Molecular weight of repeat unit : 113.16 g/mol. • Typical Physical Properties • Repeat Unit • C6H11ON Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta 8

  8. 2 Methodology • Methodology: • Brief introduction to the three different views on history: • The inventor (W. Carothers) • The company where he conducted the research in his lab (Du Pont) • The global perspective Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  9. 2.1 History 1 • Wallace H. Carothers (1896-1938) • Genius chemist, several degrees • Conducted research at industrial company (Du Pont) • Conducted research to find a molecule as large as possible • In the beginning he was free to chose his topic, later on he was oriented by Du Pont • His colleague realized that nylon could be drawn into fibre (1934) • Suffered from depression and committed suicide Science and Corporate Strategy – Du Pont R&D (1992) Polymers – The Origins & Growth of a Science (1995) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2002) Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  10. 2.2 History 2 • Du Pont (established 1802) • Wanted to have a research lab as their “commitment to scientific discovery as the key to future success” • Lured away Carothers from Harvard university • Carothers was free to “do pure basic research” • Du Pont wanted to develop a synthetic fibre that could replace silk • Nylon invented by Carothers in 1935 • In 1938, public announcement of nylon as “the first man-made organic textile fabric prepared entirely from new materials from the mineral kingdom” Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  11. 2.3 History 3 • The Global View • Despite the Great Depression, Carothers’ Lab´s funding was never reduced • By 1931 silk was getting expensive and harder to find due to political and trade troubles with Japan • Du Pont was urged by the US government to make Nylon a reality as quick as possible • Nylon was a potential as a vital war material • During war Nylon replaced Asian silk and supplanted cotton Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  12. 3.1 Synthesis Synthesis Nylon 6 begins as pure Caprolactam. As caprolactam has 6 carbon atoms, it got the name Nylon-6. When caprolactam is heated at about 533 K in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen for about 4-5 hours, the ring breaks and undergoes polymerization. Then the molten mass is passed through spinnerets to form fibres of Nylon 6. Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  13. 3.2 Synthesis During polymerization, the peptide bond within each caprolactam molecule is broken, with the active groups on each side re-forming two new bonds as the monomer becomes part of the polymer backbone. Unlike nylon 6,6, in which the direction of the amide bond reverses at each bond, all nylon 6 amide bonds lie in the same direction (see figure: note the N to C orientation of each amide bond). Nylon 6 therefore resembles natural polypeptides more closely; in fact, caprolactam would become an amino acid if it were hydrolyzed. This difference has little effect on the polymer's mechanical or chemical properties, but is sufficient to create a legal distinction. Nylon 6 (above) has a structure similar to Nylon 6,6 (below). Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  14. 4.1 Experimental Procedure • Experimental Procedure : • 10 g of  e - caprolactam are placed into a 25 mL beaker. Using a glass rod a small piece of sodium (approx. 0.01 g) is pressed into the caprolactam. • The melting of the mixture occurs with reduced burner flame. • Afterwards the liquefied materials are heated to boiling. The deep brown molten mass is cooled down for 5 minutes. • The mixture will become much more viscous. • Fibers are drawn by dipping a glass rod into the polymer and rapidly drawing out the solidifying material of the beaker. Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  15. Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  16. 4.2 Discussion • Discussion: • The induction of the lactam polymerization occurs in two steps. Caprolactam first reacts with Na to give lactam anion. • In the second step of the initiation process, the lactam anion (the activated monomer) attacks the carbonyl carbon of caprolactam and adds to it. Ring-opening leads to the formation of N-caproyl caprolactam anion. • Thus another species is generated that can react again in the same manner. This happens over and over to produce a long chain of perlon . Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  17. 4.3 Reaction Anionic, ring-opening polymerisation Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta

  18. 5.1 Applications Applications • Nylon 6 is used as, • Thread in bristles for toothbrushes and Surgical sutures • Strings for acoustic andclassical musical instruments, including guitars, violins, violas, and cellos. • It is also used in the manufacture of a large variety of threads, ropes, filaments, nets, and tire cords, as well as hosiery and knitted garments. • It can also be used in gun frames, such as those used by Glock, which are made with a composite of Nylon 6 and other polymers. It has the potential to be used as a technical nutrient. Presentation By Mr. Devang Mehta