Skeletal system . Year10 Basketball. Functions. Support- organs and tissue of the body. Would otherwise collapse. Protection- of internal organs. Cranium (head), ribs (heart and lungs). Movement- attachment for muscles and levers. Storage- minerals, blood cells and production. . Structure.
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Skeletal system Year10 Basketball
Functions • Support- organs and tissue of the body. Would otherwise collapse. • Protection- of internal organs. Cranium (head), ribs (heart and lungs). • Movement- attachment for muscles and levers. • Storage- minerals, blood cells and production.
Structure • 206 bones • Two main groups: • Axial- Skull, spine, rib cage. • Appendicular- limbs joint to pelvis and shoulders.
Skull • 8 bones- cranium • 14 bones- face • Many fused together • Mandible- independent movement. Know this bone
Spine • Spine- vertebra • Sacrum and coccyx fused together. • First vertebra- atlas • Second vertebra- axis
Spine cont. • Vertebra stacked on top of each other. • Spinal cord runs run down the canal. • Discs keep spine flexible and absorb shock
Thorax • 12 pairs of ribs • Top 10 joined to sternum by cartilage • Floating ribs- no cartilage attachment at sternum
Appendicular Skeleton • Limbs joint to shoulder and pelvis. • Shoulder girdle- clavicle, humerus, scapula. • Arm- radius, ulna. • Hand- carpal, metacarpal, phalanges • Leg- femur, fibula, tibia. • Foot- tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges.
Types of Bones • Long bones. • Short bones • Flat bones • Irregular bones • Sesamoid bones
Bone Joints • A joints structure determines how it functions. • The closer the bones fit the stronger the joint. • Tightly fitting joints restrict movement. • The looser the fit the greater the movement, although the joint is weaker.
Types of Joints • Fibrous (immoveable) • Tough fibres join these bones together • E.g. Cranium, sockets of teeth • Cartilaginous (partially moveable) • Cartilage joins these bones together • Cartilage is not as flexible as ligaments therefore movement is restricted • E.g. Between vertebra, between pubic bones, ribs, sternum • Synovial (freely moveable) • Move freely and are the most common • Characterised by synovial fluid • Six types of synovial joints
Types of Joints Fibrous Joint Cartilaginous Joint
A Typical Synovial Joint • Hyaline cartilage- protects tissue, reduces friction. • Capsule- adds stability, stops unwanted material entering joint. • Synovial Membrane- produce synovial fluid • Synovial fluid- lubricates the surfaces of the joint, forms a liquid cushion, provides nutrients, absorbs friction. • Ligaments- provide stability. • Discs- absorb shock, maintain stability, protects bone surface • Pads of fat- cushioning. • Bursae- closed sacs filled with synovial fluid, reduce friction.
Types of Synovial Joints Hinge Joint Ball in Socket Pivot Joint Back and forth- knee, knuckles, ankle, elbow Side to side, back and forth, rotational- shoulder, pelvis Rotation only- neck joint atlas/axis Gliding Joint Flat surfaces slide- carpals, tarsals, ribs
Types of Movements • The body can move in many different ways, each bones ability to move depends on the muscle attached and the type of joint. • Each movement has an opposite movement
Types of Movements • Flexion – bending • Extension – straightening • Adduction – Body part moves toward midline of body • Abduction – Body part moves away from the midline of the body • Rotation – Body part moves around its axis • Lateral – move outwards • Medial – Move inwards