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Skeletal system . Year10 Basketball. Functions. Support- organs and tissue of the body. Would otherwise collapse. Protection- of internal organs. Cranium (head), ribs (heart and lungs). Movement- attachment for muscles and levers. Storage- minerals, blood cells and production. . Structure.

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skeletal system

Skeletal system

Year10 Basketball

functions
Functions
  • Support- organs and tissue of the body. Would otherwise collapse.
  • Protection- of internal organs. Cranium (head), ribs (heart and lungs).
  • Movement- attachment for muscles and levers.
  • Storage- minerals, blood cells and production.
structure
Structure
  • 206 bones
  • Two main groups:
    • Axial- Skull, spine, rib cage.
    • Appendicular- limbs joint to pelvis and shoulders.
skull
Skull
  • 8 bones- cranium
  • 14 bones- face
  • Many fused together
  • Mandible- independent movement.

Know this bone

spine
Spine
  • Spine- vertebra
  • Sacrum and coccyx fused together.
  • First vertebra- atlas
  • Second vertebra- axis
spine cont
Spine cont.
  • Vertebra stacked on top of each other.
  • Spinal cord runs run down the canal.
  • Discs keep spine flexible and absorb shock
thorax
Thorax
  • 12 pairs of ribs
  • Top 10 joined to sternum by cartilage
  • Floating ribs- no cartilage attachment at sternum
appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Limbs joint to shoulder and pelvis.
    • Shoulder girdle- clavicle, humerus, scapula.
    • Arm- radius, ulna.
    • Hand- carpal, metacarpal, phalanges
    • Leg- femur, fibula, tibia.
    • Foot- tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges.
types of bones
Types of Bones
  • Long bones.
  • Short bones
  • Flat bones
  • Irregular bones
  • Sesamoid bones
bone joints
Bone Joints
  • A joints structure determines how it functions.
  • The closer the bones fit the stronger the joint.
  • Tightly fitting joints restrict movement.
  • The looser the fit the greater the movement, although the joint is weaker.
types of joints
Types of Joints
  • Fibrous (immoveable)
      • Tough fibres join these bones together
      • E.g. Cranium, sockets of teeth
  • Cartilaginous (partially moveable)
      • Cartilage joins these bones together
      • Cartilage is not as flexible as ligaments therefore movement is restricted
      • E.g. Between vertebra, between pubic bones, ribs, sternum
  • Synovial (freely moveable)
      • Move freely and are the most common
      • Characterised by synovial fluid
      • Six types of synovial joints
a typical synovial joint
A Typical Synovial Joint
  • Hyaline cartilage- protects tissue, reduces friction.
  • Capsule- adds stability, stops unwanted material entering joint.
  • Synovial Membrane- produce synovial fluid
  • Synovial fluid- lubricates the surfaces of the joint, forms a liquid cushion, provides nutrients, absorbs friction.
  • Ligaments- provide stability.
  • Discs- absorb shock, maintain stability, protects bone surface
  • Pads of fat- cushioning.
  • Bursae- closed sacs filled with synovial fluid, reduce friction.
types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints

Hinge Joint

Ball in Socket

Pivot Joint

Back and forth- knee, knuckles, ankle, elbow

Side to side, back and forth, rotational- shoulder, pelvis

Rotation only- neck joint atlas/axis

Gliding Joint

Flat surfaces slide- carpals, tarsals, ribs

types of movements
Types of Movements
  • The body can move in many different ways, each bones ability to move depends on the muscle attached and the type of joint.
  • Each movement has an opposite movement
types of movements1
Types of Movements
  • Flexion – bending
  • Extension – straightening
  • Adduction – Body part moves toward midline of body
  • Abduction – Body part moves away from the midline of the body
  • Rotation – Body part moves around its axis
      • Lateral – move outwards
      • Medial – Move inwards