I. War Affects the World • The Gallipoli Campaign (Feb. 1915) -Allies targeted the Dardanelles -Goal: Constantinople -Gallipoli Peninsula -Turned into another stalemate -Dec. 1915: Allies gave up & evacuated
B. Battles in Africa & Asia • German colonial possessions came under attack • Brits. & Fr. recruited subjects from their colonies (Af. & Asia) • Many fought/died in battle • Others kept front lines supplied • Participation = independence? • Gandhi: If we could improve our status through the help and cooperation of the British, it is our duty to win their help by standing by them in their hour of need.
C. America Joins the Fight • 1917: focus of war shifted to seas • Germans = submarine warfare (Jan 1917) • Unrestricted submarine warfare • May 7, 1915: U-boat sank the Lusitania • 1,198 killed (128 Amers.) • Amer. public outraged! • 1917: Germans returned to U.S.W. • Naval blockade of Brit.
Feb. 1917: Zimmerman Note • Arthur Zimmerman • Germany would help Mexico “reconquer” land lost to U.S. • Not taken seriously (Mexico in civil war) • Amers. favored Brits • ECONOMICS! • March 1917: Czar Nicholas II of Russia forced to abdicate • Czar = autocrat
II. War Affects the Home Front • The Great War affected everyone!
A. Govts. Wage Total War • WWI = total war • All resources were dedicated to war effort • Govt took control of economy • Facilities converted to munitions factories • Govts turned to rationing • People bought only small amounts of items that were also needed for the war effort • Govts suppressed antiwar activity • Propaganda
B. Women & the War • Govts looked toward women for labor • Replaced men in factories, offices, shops • Built war effort supplies
III. The Allies Win the War • U.S. = end is near? • NOPE…Russia.
A. Russia Withdraws • March 1917: civil unrest—Czar Nicholas forced to abdicate • Provisional govt. imposed • 5.5 mill. were wounded, killed, taken prisoner • Morale was low • Govt. lasted 8 mos. • Nov. 1917: Vladimir Lenin took over • March 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
B. The Central Powers Collapse • Germany now focused on W.Front • March 1918: Germans mounted attack on France • Late May 1918: Germans reached Marne R. • Germans exhausted • Allies counterattacked (U.S. helped) • July 1918: Second Battle of the Marne • U.S. = 2 mill. more troops • Central Powers crumbled
Nov. 9, 1918: Kaiser Wilhelm stepped down • Germany = republic • met w/Fr. Commander Marshal Foch to sign armistice • Nov. 11, 1918: WWI came to an end!
IV. Legacy of the War • WWI = new kind of war • New technologies • New idea of global war • All-time highs in death & destruction • 8.5 mill. soldiers killed • 21 mill. wounded • Civilians died b/c of starvation, disease, slaughter • Entire generation of Euros. wiped out!
WWI = devastating economic impact: • Cost = $338 bill. • Destroyed farmland, homes, villages, towns • Also, left behind a sense of disillusionment among survivors