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A Global Conflict

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  1. A Global Conflict

  2. WWI more than a European conflict • Australia and Japan fought with Allies • India supplied troops to British • Ottoman Turks and Bulgaria fight with Central Powers • New allies and war fronts around the globe

  3. War Affects the World • Allies look to attack the Dardanelles • Take Ottoman capital of Constantinople • Defeat Turks • Establish supply line to Russia • Use Danube River to attack Austria

  4. The Gallipoli Campaign • Efforts begin Feb. 1915 • Repeated attacks on Gallipoli Peninsula • British, Australians, New Zealand, French troops • Western side of Dardanelles Strait • Turkish troops defend the region • May – bloody stalemate • December – Allies give up • 250,000 casualties

  5. Battles in Africa and Asia • Southwest Asia • British help Arabs rise up against Turks • Lawrence of Arabia • Allies take Baghdad, Jerusalem, Damascus • Asia and Africa • Germany’s colonies come under assault • Japanese overrun outposts in China • Capture Pacific island colonies

  6. British and French recruit colonists • Troops and laborers from Africa, India, Indochina

  7. America Joins the Fight • 1917 – Focus of war shifts to the high seas • Jan 1917 - Germans begin unrestricted sub warfare • Sink without warning any ship in the waters around Britain

  8. May 17, 1915 – Germans sink Lusitania • British ship • 1,198 dead – 128 Americans • Germans claim ship carrying ammunition – true • American public outraged • President Wilson protested to Germany • 2 attacks later Germans stop attacks on neutral and passenger ships

  9. Purpose of German blockade • Starve Britain into defeat before US could go to war • Ignore Wilson’s warning and sink 3 American ships

  10. Zimmerman Note • Feb 1917 • German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman • Sends note to ambassador in Mexico • Mexico would ally w/Germany • Germany would help Mexico “reconquer” land lost to US • British decode message and give to US

  11. Americans call for war • Bond w/England • Shared language and ancestry • Apr. 2, 1917 – US declares war on Central Powers

  12. War Affects the Home Front • Three years of war before US enters • More men killed than in 3 centuries before • War claimed lives of millions • Affected everyone

  13. Gov’ts Wage Total War • Total War • Countries devote all resources to war effort • Wartime gov’ts take control • Told factories what to produce and how much • Every able-bodied citizen put to work • Gov’ts look to foreign workers

  14. Rationing • People could only buy small amounts of items needed for war • Gov’ts suppress anti-war activity • Censor news about the war • Use propaganda • One-sided information designed to persuade

  15. War’s Impact on Women • Thousands go to work • Replace men in factories, offices, and shops

  16. Allies win the War • Russia withdraws from the War • March 1917 • Civil unrest in Russia brings down czar’s gov’t • Nicholas abdicated throne on March 15 • New gov’t vows to keep fighting • Army refuses

  17. Nov 1917 – Communist Revolution • Lenin ends involvement in war • Offers Germany truce

  18. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • March 1918 • Ends war between Germany and Russia • Required Russian gov’t to surrender land • Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania • Nations gain independence at end of war