Input and Output The User Connection
Brain Teaser… • Draw nine points on a piece of paper (see next slide) • After moving to the next slide, don’t click until you ready to have the answer revealed. • Connect the 9 points by drawing four straight lines without lifting the pencil. • Only pass through each point once. • Too easy – try three straight lines • Hint: Think outside the box…
List and describe different input and output equipment. Describe the characteristics that determine a monitor’s quality. Describe the characteristics that determine printer’s quality. Be sure to read textbook for additional information on Input and Output equipment. Topics
Information Processing Cycle InputRaw Data Process (Application) OutputInformation Storage Output from one process can serve as input to another process.
What is Input? • Input is any data and/or instructions entered into the memory (RAM) of a computer. • An application (program) must be running in order for the data to be entered and processed. • Instructions may be submitted to an application (for example Save File) or may be submitted to the Operating System (for example Start a program).
Input Devices • Keyboard • Mouse • Trackball • Touchpad • Joystick • Pens • Pointing Stick • Touch Screen • Graphics Tablet • Scanners • Optical Readers • OCR/OMR/Bar Code/ Magnetic Ink Character Reader • Data Collection Devices • Biological Feedback • Digital Cameras • Microphone • Voice/Speech Recognition • Video Input • Videoconferencing • TV Tuner • ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act ) • Keyguard • Head mounted pointer
Computer Keyboard Keys • Function Keys • Cursor-Movement Keys • Numeric Keypad • Toggle Keys (Caps Lock, Num Lock) • Modifier Keys (Shift, Alt, Ctrl) • Windows Keys • Print Screen List of Keyboard Shortcut Keyshttp://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;Q301583
Capturing a Screen Image • Print Screen – Captures an image of the entire desktop to the Clipboard. • Alt + Print Screen - Captures active window image to the Clipboard.http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnwue/html/appxb.asp
Ergonomic Keyboards International Keyboards
Multi-media Readers • Reads various Flash Memory Cards such as those used on digital cameras.
Biometric Input • Biometrics is the technology of authenticating a person’s identity by verifying a personal characteristic. • Fingerprint scanner • Face Recognition Technology • Voice Verification System • Signature Verification System • Iris Recognition System (eyes)
What is Output? • Output is data processed into a useful information that can used by a person or a machine. • Softcopy – displayed on a monitor or saved to a disk. • Hardcopy – printed output
Output Categories • Text • Graphics • Drawings • Charts • Photos • Audio • Sounds • Music • Speech • Video • Animation
Output Devices • Monitors • Flat Panel • LCD Displays • Gas Plasma • Touch Screens • HDTV (digital) • Printers Portrait/Landscape • Impact • Inkjet • Laser • Thermal printer • Portable printer • Braille printer • Plotters • Label printer • Fax machine • Multifunction • Data Projectors • LCD • Digital Light (DLP) • HDTV • Speakers • Headsets • Tactile Displays (visually impaired see next slide)
Tactile Display Display is generatedby adjusting the metallic film’scurvature. The userplaces their hand over the device to“feel” the output.White areas on imageare raised slightly.
Monitor Attributes • Pixel - is the smallest element in an electronic image. Pixel is short for picture element. • Resolution – clarity of the image is directly related to the number of pixels. • Common resolutions range from 800 x 600 to 1600 x 1200 pixels (horizontal x vertical). • Dot Pitch - refers to the distance between each pixel (recommend .28 or less). The smaller the dot pitch, the sharper the screen image. • Refresh or Scan Rate (CRT)– the number of times the image is drawn per second by the scanning electron beam (recommend 68 Hz, slower may flicker). • Response Time (LCD) – time in milliseconds (ms) it takes to turn a pixel on or off (2-8ms) instead of using a scanning electron beam.
Resolution • A higher resolution means that there are more pixels per inch. • This gives the desktop more room, so more information can fit on the screen. • This in turn makes text and graphics appear smaller. • Most consumers think that buying a larger screen with a higher resolution will allow them to see their work larger.
Integrated vs. Expansion Video • A port on the back of the computer is required to connect a monitor. • The video connection may be integrated into the motherboard, or added as an Expansion Card by inserting into an Expansion Slot. • Integrated video shares the system RAM and may require that the CPU do some of the work. • Expansion cards come with additional RAM and a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) that graphic programs and games take advantage of. • The same is true for sound cards, but video is more demanding.
Ports for Integrated Circuits Standard VGA Monitor Port
Video Cards • Expansion Slots • AGP – Accelerated Graphics Port • PCI or PCI Express • S-Video for TV’s or other video • VGA – standard video (15 pin) • DVI - Digital Visual Interface (24 pin) • DVI is a connection standard developed by Intel for connecting computers to digital monitors such as flat panels and DLP projectors. • DVI allows digital to digital connection and that eliminates the conversion to analog and thereby delivers an unblemished image. • ATI and nVidia are some chip sets found on various products
Dual Monitors? • Can use Standard port and DVI port, or a Dual-monitor video card, or two separate video cards.
Audio Cards • May include line out, headphone out, microphone in, Aux, etc. • Surround Sound for unbelievable gaming, movie, and music experience.
Printers • Impact printers form characters by striking a mechanism against a ribbon that physically contacts the paper (noisy and less clearer). • Nonimpact printers form characters without actually striking the paper. • Image sharpness is measured in dots per inch (dpi). • Laser Printers • 600 or 1200 dpi • 15 – 50 pages per minute (ppm) • Uses drum, toner, laser and heat (copy machine) • Inkjet Printers • 4800 x 1200 dpi • 8 – 22 ppm • Ink is sprayed on to paper • To save color ink, set printer to print in Black and White instead of Color as the default.
Portrait vs Landscape • Portrait orientation is taller than wider • Landscape orientation is wider than taller.
Number of Bits and Color… • Human eye has only 3 color receptors. • Red, Green, Blue (RGB) • The eye can see about 256 shades of each, which is about 350,000 colors. • 8 bit = 28 = 256 colors • 16 bit = 216 = 65,536 • 24 bit = 224 = 16.7 million (true color)
Another Brain Teaser… • On the next slide there is a ring of pink dots. • If your eyes follow the movement of the rotating pink dot, the dots will remain only one color, pink. • However if you stare at the " + " in the center, the moving dot turns to green. • If you concentrate on the " + " in the center of the picture. After a short period, all the pink dots will slowly disappear, and you will only see only a single green dot rotating. • There really isn’t a green dot , and the pink ones really does 't disappear. • We don't always see what we think we see.
Next In Class • Lab – Adaptive Technology