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Christian Spirituality. Periods. Early formulation (250-600) Early Middle Ages (600-900) “Golden Age” (900-1300) Late Middle Ages (1300-1500) Reformation Counter-Reformation. Periods (cont.). 17th Century Anglo-American (Anglican, Puritan)

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periods
Periods
  • Early formulation (250-600)
  • Early Middle Ages (600-900)
  • “Golden Age” (900-1300)
  • Late Middle Ages (1300-1500)
  • Reformation
  • Counter-Reformation
periods cont
Periods (cont.)
  • 17th Century Anglo-American (Anglican, Puritan)
  • 18th Century Anglo-American (Great Awakening, Methodism)
  • 19th Century
  • 20th Century
early sources
Early Sources
  • Bible
  • Classical and Jewish philosophy
  • Monasticism
  • Eastern theology
  • Western theology
  • Celtic spirituality
sources cont
Sources (cont.)
  • Classical and Jewish philosophy
    • Plato
    • Plotinus (205-c. 270)
    • Proclus (412-c. 490)
    • Philo (c. 20 B.C.-c. 50 A.D.)
sources cont6
Sources (cont.)
  • Monasticism
    • Anthony (c. 250-356) and the Desert Fathers
    • Evagrios (345-399)
    • John Cassian (c. 360-c. 435; to France 415)
    • Martin of Tours (ca. 317-357)
    • Benedict (c. 480-c. 547)
sources cont7
Sources (cont.)
  • Eastern theology
    • Alexandrian school
      • Clement (c. 160-220)
      • Origen (c. 185-253)
      • Athanasius (c. 296-373)
    • Cappadocian fathers
      • Gregory Nazianzus (c. 329-c. 390)
      • Basil (329-379)
      • Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335-c. 395)
    • Pseudo-Dionysius (c. 500)
    • Maximos Confessor (580-662)
sources cont8
Sources (cont.)
  • Western theology
    • Ambrose (334-397)
    • Augustine (354-430)
    • Gregory the Great (540-604)
    • John Scottus Eriugena (c. 810-c. 877)
sources cont9
Sources (cont.)
  • Celtic spirituality: Emphases
    • Pilgrimage/voyage; exile and home
    • Longing and desire
    • Longing for heroic past
    • Spiritual combat
    • Penance and spiritual guidance
    • Ambivalent view of nature
11 13th century spirituality
11-13th century Spirituality
  • Background
    • Ecclesiastical reforms
      • Gregory VII (c. 1020-1085, pope from 1073)
      • Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
    • Crusades (beginning 1096)
    • Monastic reform
11 13th century cont
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Benedictine reform
    • 11th century figures: John of Fecamp, Peter Damian
    • Cistertians (1098): Bernard. others
  • Canon reform
    • Carthusians
    • Victorines
  • Mendicant order creation
    • Franciscans
    • Dominicans
  • Beguines and women mystical writers
11th 13th century cont
11th--13th century (cont.)
  • Cistertians (Benedictine reform)
    • Order founded (1098)
    • Bernard (1090-1153)
    • William of St. Thierry (c. 1080-1148)
    • Aelred (c. 1110-1167)
    • Joachim of Fiore (1132-1202)
11 13th century cont13
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Carthusians (canon reform)
    • Bruno (1030--1101)
    • Chartreuse founded (1084)
    • Order founded (1140)
11th 13th century cont14
11th-13th century (cont.)
  • Victorines (canon reform)
    • Abby of St. Victor founded (1108)
    • Hugh of St. Victor (1097-1141)
    • Richard of St. Victor (c. 1123-c. 1173)
    • Thomas Gallus (d. 1246)
11 13th century cont15
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Franciscans
    • Francis (1182-1226)
    • Order founded (1209)
    • Bonaventure (1217-1274)
    • John of Parma (1209-1289)
    • Jacopone da Todi (1228-c.1306)
11 13th century cont16
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Dominicans
    • Dominic (1172-1221); Cistertian
    • Order founded 1215
    • Aquinas (1226-1274)
11 13th century cont17
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Beguines and women mystics
    • Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179); Benedictine
    • Elizabeth of Schonau (c. 1129-1165); Benedictine
    • Hadewijch (c. 1200-c. 1250); Beguine
    • Mechtild of Madeburg (c. 1210-c. 1285?); Beguine/Dominican, later Cistertian
    • Mechtild of Hackborn (1240-1298)
late 13th early 14th century background
Late 13th--Early 14th Century Background
  • Death of several prominent religious leaders (Dominic 1272, Aquinas and Bonaventure 1274)
  • Chaos in Papacy
    • Between Gregory X (1271-1276) and 1300 there were 7 popes; between 1268-1271 and 1292-1294 there was no pope.
    • Boniface VIII (1294--1303) has a ruinous confrontation with Philip IV of France (reins 1285-1314)
    • Papacy moves to Avignon (1305-1378); this is later followed by the Great Schism (1378-1417)
  • European famines begin 1315; these are followed by the Black Death (1347-1350)
14th century spirituality
14th century Spirituality
  • Focus on reform/revival movements outside of France and Italy
    • British Spirituality
    • German Spirituality
    • Low Countries Spirituality
  • Italian remnant
    • Dante (1265-1321)
    • Catherine of Siena (1347-1380); Dominican
    • Later: Catherine of Genoa (1447-1510)
14th century cont
14th century (cont.)
  • British spirituality
    • Margery Kempe (c. 1290)
    • Richard Rolle (c. 1300-1349)
    • John Wyclif (1324-1384)
    • Cloud of Unknowing (c. 1370; Carthusian?)
    • Walter Hilton (c. 1340-1396; Canon)
    • Julian of Norwich (1343-c. 1413)
14th century cont21
14th century (cont.)
  • German spirituality
    • Meister Eckhart (c. 1260-1327; Dominican)
    • Margaret Ebner (1291-1351)
    • John Tauler (c. 1300-1361)
    • Henry Suso (c. 1295-1365)
    • Theologia Germanica (c. 1350)
    • Nicholas of Cusa (1400-1464)
14th century cont22
14th century (cont.)
  • Low countries
    • Hadewijch (c. 1200-c. 1250)
    • John Ruysbroeck (1293-1381)
    • Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471)
protestant reformation
Protestant Reformation
  • Reformation
    • Luther (1483-1546); the Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
    • Calvin (1509-1564) and Zwingli (1484-1531)
    • Anabaptists: Mennonites and others (Menno Simons, 1496-1561)
    • Other mystics: Jacob Boehme (1575-1624)
reformation cont
Reformation (cont.)
  • Effects of the Reformation
    • Rejection of monasticism and associated practices
    • De-emphasis on development
    • De-emphasis on mystery, negative theology
    • Emphasis on Word, preaching
    • Emphasis on the equality of all
    • Problem of assurance
counter reformation
Counter-Reformation
  • Movements and Reactions
    • Council of Trent
    • Spanish Mystics; Ignatius and the Jesuits
    • French Spirituality
    • Jansenius Controversy (17 century)
spanish mystics
Spanish Mystics
  • Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
    • Founder of the Jesuits, which became a primary tool for counter-Reformation and world missionary work
    • Wrote the Spiritual Exercises which emphasize examination, discernment
spanish mystics cont
Spanish Mystics (cont.)
  • Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)
    • Led reform and establishment of Carmelite convents in Spain
    • Emphasis more on positive spirituality
    • Wrote a number of famous works, including an autobiography, Way of Perfection, and Interior Castle
spanish mystics cont28
Spanish Mystics (cont.)
  • John of the Cross (1542-1591)
    • Worked with Teresa for a period of time
    • Imprisoned by the Inquisition for a time, during which he did some of his best writing
    • Wrote poetry and prose, works include Ascent of Mount Carmel and Dark Night of the Soul
french spirituality
French Spirituality
  • Francis de Sales (1567-1622)
  • Brother Lawrence (1611-1691)
  • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
  • Quietists
    • Madame Guyon (1648-1717)
    • Francois Fenelon (1651-1715)
17th century anglo american mainstream
17th Century Anglo-American: Mainstream
  • English “Reformation” (break with Rome completed 1535) but continued struggle between Catholics and Protestants until the flight of James II (1688)
  • Spirituality for all
    • Book of Common Prayer (1549); Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556)
    • Dissolution of the monasteries
    • George Herbert (1593-1633)
    • Jeremy Taylor (1613-1667)
    • William Laud: Becomes Archbishop of Canterbury, 1633; introduces Arminian theology
17th century anglo american dissenters
17th Century Anglo-American: Dissenters
  • Puritanism (anti-Catholic; Calvinist; emphasis on creation, sanctification)
    • Richard Baxter (1615-1691)
    • John Owen (1616-1683)
    • John Bunyan (1628-1688)
    • John Milton (1608-1674)
  • Separatism (Congregationalists, Baptists)
  • Quietism/Quakerism: George Fox (1624-1691)
18th century anglo american
18th Century Anglo-American
  • William Law (1686-1761)
  • Awakenings
    • Isaac Watts (1674-1748)
    • American GA: 1720s & 1730s
    • Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
  • Methodism
    • John Wesley (1703-1791); Aldersgate Street Experience (1738)
19th 20th century
19th-20th Century
  • European
    • Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
    • Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945)
    • Henri Nouwen (1932-)
19th 20th century cont
19th-20th Century (cont.)
  • British
    • Evelyn Underhill (1875-1941)
    • CS Lewis (1900-1963)
    • William Temple (1881-1944)
    • Charles Spurgeon (1834-1892)
19th 20th century cont35
19th-20th Century (cont.)
  • American
    • Thomas Merton (1915-1968)
    • Dallas Willard (1935-)
    • George Buttrick (1892-1980)
    • Frank Laubach (1884-1970)
    • John Baillie (1886-1960)
    • Elizabeth O’Connor (1921-)
    • E. Stanley Jones (1884-1973)
    • Morton Kelsey (Episcopal)
19th 20th century cont36
19th-20th Century (cont.)
  • International
    • Anthony de Mello (1931-1987)
    • Thomas Kelly (1893-1941)
    • Watchman Nee (1903-1972)