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  1. Individualism A Romantic and Transcendental Thought

  2. Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson & Henry David Thoreau

  3. Transcendentalism • An intellectual movement of the 19th century. Transcendentalists were interested in the human spirit and thought that an exploration of nature helped people understand universal truths.

  4. Transcendentalism • Believed the individual was at the center of the universe, more powerful than any institution whether political or religious (384).

  5. Transcendentalism • Ralph Waldo Emerson was considered the “father” of Transcendentalism in many ways. • Struggled with his faith so much, that he began questioning his own beliefs and establishing his own philosophy • As he struggled with his own faith, he struggled with the notion that machines might in the future replace people and the concerned him

  6. Nature • What does this work reveal to you about Transcendentalism?

  7. Civil Disobedience • “That government is best which governs least” is the motto that Thoreau expresses throughout this essay (416). What does he mean? What change is he calling for?

  8. Self Reliance • Which aspects, if any, of today’s American culture reflect Emerson’s belief in self-reliance?

  9. Catalogue Poem Read the following poem and… Write an appropriate title Explain what the poem “lists” and if it is effective.

  10. Six Yu-Gi-Oh cards. Chewing gum wrappers. School handouts, two weeks overdue. Three rubber bands. A five-inch-tall stuffed dog. Four small blood stains. Two smooth, gray rocks. Fourth-grade intrigue. Four pencils with no lead and no eraser. Righteous indignation. Stories. Avril Lavigne. Asthma inhaler. A feather. Fourteen pale pink ribbons. Playground news. Someone's phone number scribbled on a Heath Bar wrapper. Eight secrets. Head lice, once. Plans of her own.

  11. Whitman • Focus on life rather than death; specifically in the American Culture • Problem: only focused on ONE type of culture

  12. Analyzing • Speaker • Mood • Catalogue Poetry—Poem using lists • Repetition—using the same words

  13. Mechanics

  14. Carpenter

  15. Mason (Bricklayers)

  16. Boatman and Deckhand

  17. Shoemaker and Hatter

  18. Wood-cutter and Plowboy

  19. Mother, Young Wife, & Girl at work

  20. The Cycle of LIFE • The Cycle of life can be divided into 5 stages. In your opinion, what are the five stages? What would you use to symbolize each stage? What emotions, ideals, or connotations do people associate with each stage? Why do these stages apply to all cultures and all people?

  21. Poetry Notes Romanticism & The American Dream

  22. Poetry People and their Profound Poetic Prayers • Narrative Poetry: tells a story (ballads, epics, verse romantics) • Dramatic poetry: presents the speech of more than one character • Lyric poetry: expresses the thoughts/feelings of a single speaker (sonnets, odes, elegies, haikus)

  23. Poetic Theme Cycle of LIFE and DEATH

  24. Terms to know • Alliteration: SOUND DEVICE • Catalogue poetry: TYPE • Metaphor: FIGURATIVE LANG • Mood: LIT TERM • Onomatopoeia: SOUND DEVICE • Personification: FIGURATIVE LANG • Refrain: SOUND DEVICE • Repetition: SOUND DEVICE • Speaker: LIT TERM

  25. Authors we’ll look at • Edgar Allan Poe • Emily Dickinson • Walt Whitman

  26. Romantic and Poe • Poe wrote mainly with a Gothic style. Gothic style is characterized by the following elements: • The story is set in bleak or remote places. • The plot involves macabre or violent incidents. • Characters are in psychological and/or physical torment. • A supernatural or otherworldly element is often present. • How does this fall under the “romantic umbrella”?

  27. Fun Fact • “When Edgar Allan Poe died, Rufus Griswold wrote a slanderous obituary of the eccentric writer. He claimed that Poe had been expelled from college, that he had neither good friends nor good qualities, and that he committed flagrant acts of plagiarism. Suspicious of this unconventional obituary, some have speculated that Poe orchestrated the death notice himself to keep his name in the public eye (310)”

  28. Analyzing 1. Mood Feeling the reader gets 2. Onomatopoeia Words that imitate sounds 3. Alliteration Repetition of initial consonant sounds 4. Speaker Who is talking in the piece 5. Refrain Lines that are repeated in verse

  29. The Bells Edgar Allan Poe

  30. We’re going to look for the following: • Alliteration (highlight color 1) • Onomatopoeia (highlight color 2) • Refrain (boxed) • Theme (written) • Mood (written)

  31. Stanza I

  32. Stanza II

  33. Stanza 3

  34. Stanza IV

  35. (Adapted from) How Death is Handled in Various Cultures Charlotte Kuchinsky

  36. Death and Cultures Why do all cultures have clear identifiable rituals for handling death? What does this tell us about all humans? Does this prove that Poe was right with his poem?

  37. Compare/Contrast Poe’s theme of “Death Triumphs over Life” to one of the cultures’ view of death.

  38. Dickinson • Recluse; odd insight to life and death; odd energy and intensity • 7 poems published pre-death • Self conscious; asked her family to destroy them at her death---why?

  39. Lyric Poem • It expresses the feelings of a single speaker’s journey to death… • Similar to Poe? How?

  40. Analyzing • Speaker • Mood • Alliteration • Metaphor • A comparison not using like or as • Personification: • giving human characteristics to something non human

  41. Because I could not Stop for Death— HE kindly stopped for me.

  42. The Carriage held but just Ourselves— And Immortality

  43. We slowly drove—He knew no haste   And I had put away   My labor and my leisure too,   For his Civility—

  44. We passed the School, where Children strove 10 At Recess—in the Ring—

  45. We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain—

  46. Or rather HE passed us— We passed the Setting Sun—

  47. The Dews drew quivering and chill—

  48. For only Gossamer, my Gown—   My Tippet—only Tulle —

  49. So…

  50. We paused before a House that seemed A Swelling of the Ground— The Roof was scarcely visible— The Cornice —in the Ground—