The Middle Ages
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The Middle Ages. The Middle Ages: 500 – 1500 The Medieval Period. Rise of the Middle Ages. Decline of the Roman Empire. Western Europe. Feudalism. Think of a chess set. Feudalism. Provide knights in times of war. Fiefs – land grants. Military protection. Fiefs – land grants. service.

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The Middle Ages: 500 – 1500

The Medieval Period

Rise of the Middle Ages

Decline of the Roman Empire



Feudalism

Think of a chess set


Feudalism

Provide knights in times of war

Fiefs – land grants

Military protection

Fiefs – land grants

service

protection

Based on mutual obligation


FeudalismManors



Early Middle Ages

450 - 1050


A roman empire vs germanic tribes
A. Roman Empire Vs. Germanic Tribes

  • 1. Rome

    • a. Unified by loyalty to public government and written law

    • b. Orderly government

    • c. All peoples followed the same rules

  • 2. Germanic

    • a. Family ties and personal loyalty

    • b. People lived in small communities governed by unwritten rules and traditions

    • c. Ruled by a Chief who led a band or warriors loyal only to him – not some emperor they’d never seen


B end of democracy
B. End of Democracy

  • 1. Roman empire overran by Germanic groups with repeated invasions and constant warfare

    • a. Breakdown of trade: money became scarce.

    • b. Cities abandoned – no longer center of economy or administration

    • c. Population became rural.

    • d. Decline of literacy – priests and other church officials were the few that were literate.

    • e. Breakup of unified empire


C european empire evolves
C. European Empire Evolves

  • 1. After the decline of the Roman Empire small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe.

  • 2. The largest and the strongest was controlled by the Franks

    • a. Lead by Clovis – first Christian king

    • b. Greatest king was Charlemagne

      • 1. most powerful king in Western Europe

      • 2. encouraged learning


D rise of charlemagne
D. Rise of Charlemagne

  • His father, Pippin, left Charlemagne his Frankish empire when he died in 768 AD. The Franks were already very powerful when Pippin died, but Charlemagne made them more powerful still.

  • Charlemagne organized a centralized system of governors (counts) throughout his kingdom, sending out men he knew to keep order all over his kingdom, and then sending out other men to check up on the counts.

  • Charlemagne also greatly expanded the size of his kingdom. He conquered France down to the Pyrenees mountains, and even into northern Spain . He crossed the Rhine river and conquered Germany , Switzerland and Austria , even into modern Hungary. To the north, he conquered Belgium . And in 774 AD Charlemagne also conquered the Lombards in northern Italy


D rise of charlemagne1
D. Rise of Charlemagne

  • 1. Death of Pippin, in 768 AD

    • a. His Son Charlemagne was next in line

      • 1. The Franks were powerful when Pippin died

      • 2. Charlemagne made them more powerful still.

  • 2. Charlemagne’s Rule

    • a. Organized a centralized system of governors (lords)

      • 1. Keep order all over his kingdom

      • 2. Sending out other men to check up on the lords

    • b. Expanding the size of his kingdom

      • 1. He conquered

        • a. France down to the Pyrenees Mountains

        • b. Northern Spain

        • c. Rhine river and Germany

        • d. Switzerland

        • e. Austria

        • f. Hungary

        • g. Belgium

        • h. Lombardsin northern Italy


Charlemagne on the rise
Charlemagne on the Rise

  • On Christmas Day, 800, Pope Leo III repaid Charlemagne for defeating the Lombards. As Charlemagne rose from prayer, Leo placed a crown on his head and proclaimed him "Augustus," emperor of the "Holy Roman Empire." The coronation united Christendom under Charlemagne's rule, but it troubled him. If the Pope had the power to crown Charlemagne king, did the Pope also have the right to remove the crown? When Charlemagne named his son as his successor, he presided over the ceremony himself and did not invite the Pope.

    • What did this indirectly tell the Pope about Charlemagne’s feelings for him?


High Middle Ages

1050 - 1300


E a violent society
E. A Violent Society

  • 1. Noble’s constantly fought each other

    • a. Defend estates

    • b. Seize new territories

    • c. Increase wealth

  • 2. Kept Europe fragmented

  • 3. Glorification of warriors


F the age of chivalry
F. The Age of Chivalry

  • 1. Chivalry – a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters

    a. His feudal lord

    b. His Heavenly Lord

    c. His Lady

    d. Meant to protect the weak and the poor


F age of chivalry
F. Age of Chivalry

  • 2. Sons of nobles began training at an early age for knighthood

    • a. Page – at 7 they were sent to another lord to be trained

    • b. Squire – at 14 they act as a servant to a knight

    • c. Knight- at 21 they become a knight and gain experience in local wars and tournaments


G the great schism
G. The Great Schism

  • 1. Division of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Church

    • a. 1054 and 1378

  • 2. “Great Divide” “Western-Eastern Schism” “Great Separation”

  • 3. Reasons

    • a. Charlemagne not inviting pope to the “party”

      • 1. Meant he had ultimate power over the church

      • 2. Caused Tension (1054 – Eastern and Western Churches)

    • b. Death of Gregory XI and the mob

      • 1. Started getting along again

      • 2. French people and priests were not happy

      • 3. Elected their own pope


G the great schism cont d
G. The Great Schism (cont’d)

  • 3. Reasons (cont’d)

    • c. People Involved

      • 1. Pope Urban VI – Italy

      • 2. Pope Clement VII – France

      • 3. Other Random pope for the rest

  • 4. Council of Constance 1414 – 1418

    • a. Outcomes

      • 1. Kicked them all out a picked someone new



Project questions to answer
Project Questions to Answer

  • 1. Relate the outcome of the Crusade to something that is happening today. (ie: 1 of the Crusades had a 3 against 1 battle. There are many countries helping us in Afghanistan right now)

  • 2. What were the 2 sides of the battle trying to win?

  • 3. How did this Crusade affect the lives of the people fighting?

  • 4. How did this Crusade affect the relationship between the people of the Roman Catholic Church and the Byzantine Orthodox Church?

  • 5. How did this Crusade affect the relationship between the people of the Roman Catholic Church and the Muslims?


H magna carta
H. Magna Carta

  • 1. Richard I and John “Softsword”

  • 2. Lords revolted against John

    • a. Forced Him to sign the document

    • b. Stated he no longer had ultimate power

    • c. King had to follow the laws


Late Middle Ages

1290 - 1527


I 5 major developments of the late middle ages
I.5 Major Developments of the Late Middle Ages

  • 1. The Hundred Years War

    • a. Fought between the French and English for the French throne

    • b. Gun powder and heavy artillery

  • 2. The Papal Schism

    • a. 3 popes

    • b. Loss of respectability due to political involvements

  • 3. The Fall of the Byzantine Empire

    • a. Turks begin assault on Western boarders


  • d) Famines

    • Climate became colder and rainier

  • Harvests shrank

  • Population doubled

  • Move back to towns

  • e) Black Death

    • The Bubonic Plague

    • killed 1/3 – ½ of European population


I 5 major developments cont d
I. 5 Major Developments (cont’d)

  • 4. Famines

    • a. Climate became colder and rainier

    • b. Harvests shrank

    • c. Population doubled

    • d. Move back to towns

  • 5. Black Death

    • a. The Bubonic Plague

    • b. killed 1/3 – ½ of European population



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