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Church Reforms and the Crusades

Church Reforms and the Crusades. Chapter 14 Section 1. Key Terms. Simony Gothic Urban II Crusades Saladin. Richard the Lion Hearted Reconquista Inquisition. The Age of Faith. 910 Clumy in France Monastaries led to spiritual revival Return to basic principles New religious orders

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Church Reforms and the Crusades

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  1. Church Reforms and the Crusades Chapter 14 Section 1

  2. Key Terms • Simony • Gothic • Urban II • Crusades • Saladin • Richard the Lion Hearted • Reconquista • Inquisition

  3. The Age of Faith • 910 Clumy in France • Monastaries led to spiritual revival • Return to basic principles • New religious orders • Popes expanded power and authority • The Age of Faith was born

  4. Problems in the Church • Some priests nearly illeterate • Barley read prayers • Popes men of questionable morals • Bishop concerned more as feudal lord than religion

  5. Problems in the Church • 3 main issues • Village priests were married and had families against church rulings • Simony-Bishops sold positions in the church • Lay Investiture, kings appoint bishops reformers wanted the church to do it

  6. Reform and Church Organization • Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII enforced laws against simony and marriage • 1100’-1200’ church restructured to look like a kingdom • Pope advisors called the papal Curia

  7. Reform and Church Organization • Curia acted as a court • Canon Law on marriage, divorce, inheritance • Diplomats traveled through Europe for the pope • Church collected taxes in for of a tithe • Used money for the sick and ran most hospitals

  8. New Religious Orders • 1200’s monk and friars took vow of poverty, chastity, and obedience • Friars- begged owned nothing • Dominic- Spanish priest formed the Dominicans • Importance of study • Were scholars

  9. New Religious Orders • Francis of Assisi- found the Franciscans treated humans and animals as spiritual brothers • 1212 Clare and Francis founded Poor Clares and order for women • Women were not allowed to travel • Took care of the sick

  10. Cathedrals- Cities of God • Built in cities • 800-1100 built in Romanesque style • Round arches • Heavy roofs • Thick walls • Pillars • Tiny windows

  11. Cathedrals Cities of God • 1100’s new style of architecture • Gothic-comes from German tribe (Goths) • Light from huge stained glass windows • Sculptures and wood carvings • Built like they were reaching the heavens

  12. Cathedrals Cities of God • Notre Dame- 100 feet tall • 500 gothic churches built between 1170-1270

  13. The Crusades • Urban II called for a Holy War • Crusades- had economic, political and social, religious motives • Muslims controlled Palestine and threatened Constatinople

  14. The Crusades • Pope wanted to reclaim Palestine and unite Christendom • Split in 1054 • Kings saw crusades as a way to get rid of some knights • Younger sons participated not likely to inherit from parents

  15. The Crusades • Merchants prospered by loaning money for the Crusades • Leased ships to transport armies • Pisa, Genoa, and Venice wanted to control trade routes

  16. The First and Second Crusade • Pope Urban’s call brought religious support • Those who died in the Crusade were assured to go to heaven • Red Cross on tunic • “God wills it”

  17. The First and Second Crusade • 1097 3 armies outside Constantinople • Ill prepared for war • Knew little of geography, climate, or culture • No strategy to capture Jerusalem • Captured the city July 15, 1079

  18. The First and Second Crusades • 4 feudal estates carved from 650 miles of land • Each ruled by a noble • 1144 Edessa was captured by the Turks • Second Crusade organized to recapture the city (fails) • 1187 Jerusalem falls to Saladin

  19. Third Crusade • To recapture Jerusalem • Three most powerful monarchs • Philip II of France • Frederick I German Emperor • Richard the Lion Hearted English King • Phillip argued and went home • Frederick drowned

  20. Third Crusade • Richard led the Crusade • Fought many battles with Saladin • 1192 made a truce • Jerusalem in Muslim hands, but would allow pilgrimages

  21. Crusading Spirit Dwindles • 1204 4th Crusade fails to capture Jerusalem • Knights loot Constantinople • 1200’s 4 more Crusades, all unsuccessful

  22. The Children’s Crusade • 1212-thousands of children set out to conquer Jerusalem • Led by Stephen of Cloyes • No weapons • Died of cold and starvation • Some sold into slavery

  23. The Children’s Crusade • Germany Nicholas of Cologne marched with 20,000 children • Marched to Rome • Most died • Met with Pope told to go home till older • 2000 made it back to Germany

  24. A Spanish Crusade • Muslims (Moors) controlled most of Spain • Reconquista-effort by Spanish to drive out the Muslims • 1492 Granada fell to the Christian Army of Ferdinand and Isabella

  25. A Spanish Crusade • Inquisition- court held by the church to suppress heresy • Heretics were people who belief’s differed from the church • Many Jews and Muslims converted in the 1400’s • Inquisition suspected Jews and Muslims as heretics

  26. A Spanish Crusade • Suspects questioned for weeks • Some tortured • Once they confessed they were burned at the stake • 1492 all practicing Jews and Muslims were expelled

  27. The Effects of the Crusades • Showed the power of the Church • European merchants expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia • Spices, fruits, cloths • Failure of Crusades lessened the power of the Pope

  28. The Effects of the Crusades • Weakened feudal nobility • Increased power of the kings • Fall of Constantinople Byzantine Empire • Intolerance and prejudice by Christians left legacy of bitterness and hatred

  29. The Effects of the Crusades • Relationships between Christians, Jews and Muslims leadership worsened • Jews in Europe face increased persecution • Led to growth in trade, towns and universities in Medieval Europe

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