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Welcome to Principles of Guided Reading!. As you take your seat, please take a few moments to think about the following questions: What is your experience in teaching reading? (what does classroom instruction look like?) What do you hope to gain from this workshop?.

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welcome to principles of guided reading
Welcome to Principles of Guided Reading!

As you take your seat, please take a few moments to think about the following questions:

  • What is your experience in teaching reading?

(what does classroom instruction look like?)

  • What do you hope to gain from this workshop?
principles of guided reading

Principles of Guided Reading

Developed by D. Godsen DePalma

Based on the work of Irene Fountas, Gay Su Pinnell, Anita Archer,

Michel McKenna, Marie Clay, Joetta Beaver and the Bureau of Education and Research

objectives for the day
Objectives for the Day

Participants will-

  • Gain an understanding of the principles of guided reading
  • View guided reading in action, with a focus on instruction strategies before, during and after reading
  • Learn new strategies for readers before, during and after reading
  • Learn and be exposed to a variety of assessments
  • Acquire essential tools for guided reading
  • There are many! You can find them at :


  • Reading academy sign up
what is guided reading
What is Guided Reading?
  • Guided reading is an instructional approach that involves a teacher working with a small group of students who demonstrate similar reading behaviors and can all read similar levels of texts. The text is easy enough for students to read with your skillful support.
      • What knowledge do you need to make this happen?
        • Knowledge about your students
        • Knowledge about text
        • Knowledge about grade level reading skills and goals (where does this information come from?)
what is guided reading1
What is Guided Reading?
  • The text offers challenges and opportunities for problem solving, but is easy enough for students to read with some fluency.
  • You choose selections that help students expand their strategies
      • What information do you need to make text selections?
what is the purpose of guided reading
What is the purpose of Guided Reading?
  • Students focus on meaning but use problem-solving strategies to figure out words they don’t know, deal with difficult sentence structure, and understand concepts or ideas they have never before encountered in print.

Think about your grade level. What problem solving strategies do you teach? (Decoding, structural, conceptual) What strategies are students at your grade level expected to know?

why is guided reading important
Why is Guided Reading Important?
  • Guided reading gives students the chance to apply the strategies they already know to new text.
  • You provide support, but the ultimate goal is independent reading.
      • How often do your students read independently?
      • How do you as a classroom teacher monitor this?
when are children ready for guided reading
When are children ready for guided reading?
  • Students are developing readers have already gained important understandings about how print works.
      • What do students need to know about print at the grade level you teach?
when are children ready for guided reading1
When are children ready for guided reading?
  • Students know how to monitor their own reading.
      • What does this look like at the grade level you teach?
when are children ready for guided reading2
When are children ready for guided reading?
  • Students have the ability to check on themselves or search for possibilities and alternatives if they encounter a problem when reading.
    • How do your students problem solve when reading? What knowledge does this require?
teacher checklist of academic resilient behaviors in literacy
Teacher Checklist of Academic Resilient Behaviors in Literacy


Eager for reading and writing time

Needs only occasional teacher redirection to stay on task

Enjoys read-alouds and reacts to the book (nonverbally or verbally)

Other evidence:


Recognizes meaning-changing errors and tries to self-correct during oral reading

Rereads own writing and can identify parts that may confuse another reader

Other evidence:


Uses class resources (e.g., dictionary, Internet) for help

Asks other students or adults for clarification when confused

Other evidence:

thoughts from m mckenna guided reading and differentiated instruction1
Thoughts from M. McKennaGuided Reading and Differentiated Instruction
  • We want to move children to the point where they decode first and then use context to select the intended meaning of a word.
  • We do not want to encourage them to predict the word from context and only “sample” its letters to the extent needed to confirm this prediction.
thoughts from m mckenna guided reading and differentiated instruction2
Thoughts from M. McKennaGuided Reading and Differentiated Instruction

Guided Reading

Differentiated Instruction

Fluency is the focus

only for grade 1 and above only if decoding skills are strong.

In differentiated instruction,

the teacher isolates reading components to address


Fluency is always the primary focus.

In guided reading, the teacher coordinates reading components (comprehension, word recognition, fluency).

guided reading
Guided Reading
  • Is not round robin reading
  • Is not stagnant grouping
  • Pay close attention to who guided reading is for 
process time
Process Time
  • What information covered to this point is new to you?
  • What questions do you have?
  • How can you apply these principles to the students (teachers) you currently work with

refer to handout

give one get one
Give one, get one…
  • Using the cards-
  • Find someone who has a card of different color
  • Share your quote with them
  • Listen to their quote
  • Have a brief discussion agreeing or disagreeing with the quote
before reading
Before Reading
  • Before Reading- research presented by Dr. Anita Archer
  • The main areas you should focus on when introducing a text are…
    • Decoding
    • Vocabulary
    • Back ground Knowledge
    • Preview the story/article
before reading focus new vocabulary words
Before ReadingFocus- new vocabulary words
  • Focus on the following video
  • Use the process page to guide your thinking
  • Think about the use of
    • Explicit Instruction
    • Whole group engagement
    • Repetition
before reading focus story structure background knowledge
Before ReadingFocus- Story Structure, Background Knowledge
  • Anticipation Guide – video clip
      • Story structure, themes, concepts, background knowledge
      • Focus on whole group engagement
  • I’d Rather – video clip
      • Story concepts, connecting to background knowledge
      • Focus on whole group engagement
during reading
During Reading
  • During Guided Reading, the classroom Teacher
    • Listens to students while they ‘whisper read’ or read silently
    • Coaches students on strategies covered
    • Takes anecdotal notes and running reading records
three levels of questioning
Three Levels of Questioning
  • Right There
    • Answer directly stated in the text
  • Author and You
    • Synthesize text
  • On your own
    • Child uses his/her own experiences
during reading1
During Reading
  • Video Clip – scaffolded reading
    • Each child reads
    • Teacher gives a purpose for reading
    • Teacher coaches students as they read
planning is critical
Planning is CRITICAL

Book knowledge

Student knowledge

Planning Pages (on moodle)

asking questions during reading
Asking Questions During Reading
  • Why do we ask students questions while they read?
after reading
After Reading
  • Discuss the story read
  • Students respond
  • Revisit text
  • Assesses student’s understanding of what they have read
  • View video clip
activities for after reading
Activities for after Reading
  • Provide intentional fluency building practice.
  • Engage students in a discussion.
  • Have students answer written questions.
  • Provide engaging vocabulary practice.
  • Have students write summaries of what they have read.
  • Engagement Checklist (Reading Teacher)
  • Observation Page
  • Planning Page
  • Running Reading Records
  • DRA
  • Other supporting assessments
running reading records
Running Reading Records



- Joetta Beaver

running reading records1

Running Reading Records


Guided Practice

Scoring and other Considerations

D. Godsen


what is a running reading record
What is a Running Reading Record?

Running records provide an assessment of text reading.

They are designed to be taken as a child reads orally from a text.

The teacher graphically records in a shorthand method everything the child when reading a passage or a book, to gain insight on strategies the student uses effectively and those with which the student needs help.

Marie Clay (2002) An Observation Survey

pg. 49

why take running reading records
Why take Running Reading Records?
  • Records are taken to guide instruction
  • Records are taken to assess text difficulty
  • Records are taken to capture progress

Marie Clay, pg. 50 - 51

notes of caution
Notes of Caution
  • Avoid printed text. This is not realistic in a classroom setting. Also, printed text often will not allow for all of the child’s behavior to be recorded.
  • Avoid using a tape recorder. Having to tape the assessment can be a crutch, and it limits your ability to record observations of behavior.
how to take a running reading record
How to Take a Running Reading Record
  • Sit next to the child so you can see the text as the student reads aloud.
  • Mark the student’s every response on your recording sheet or a blank piece of paper.
  • Start a new row of recording for each new line on the page. Record page numbers.
guided practice
Guided Practice

You will now have the opportunity to practice recording for each type of error.

Refer to handout for coding system.

correct response a
Correct response a

The Giving Tree

Shel Silverstein








word omitted correct word
Word Omitted correct word


-Julie Brinckloe



aa aaaaopen

word substituted word read correct word
Word Substituted word read correct word

Something Beautiful





jump Sybil



words inserted word read
Words Inserted word read

Angelina and Alice - Katharine Holabird



aaaaaaand cried

how often do i take rrr
How often do I take RRR?
  • Take records of emerging readers every 2 - 4 weeks. Take one more often with students who are not making expected gains.
  • Take records of each progressing and transitional readers every 4-6 weeks and more often with students not making expected gains.
  • Take records of each fluent reader quarterly and more often with any students who begin to experience difficulty reading.
partner practice
Partner Practice
  • You will now be given the opportunity to practice recording records with a partner.
  • One person will read the provided text WITH ERRORS while the other records.

Overview of the DRA

  • Authentic reading assessment for K-8 students.
  • Assesses:
    • comprehension
    • oral reading fluency
    • accuracy

DRA Enables teachers to:

  • Determine a reader’s independent assessment level
  • Confirm or redirect ongoing reading instruction
  • Group students effectively for reading experiences and instruction
  • Identify students who may be working below proficiency and need further assessments

DRA Components

Teacher Resource Guide

  • Provides an overview of the assessment
  • Gives directions for administering the assessment
  • Includes information for analyzing the information gathered
  • Shows how to report student progress
scoring a running record
Scoring a Running Record
  • There are 3 points to be taken into consideration when scoring a record.
1 accuracy rate
1. Accuracy Rate
  • To gain a percentage score on words read
  • Take the total number of words read, subtract the number of miscues, and divide by the total number of words.

Words read – miscues

total words

100 – 10

100 = 90 %

2 comprehension
2. Comprehension
  • Comprehension is a CRITICAL ‘checkpoint’ to consider during a RRR
  • Retelling
  • DRA comprehension rubric

** You will assess comprehension in other ways in addition to the record.

3 fluency
3. Fluency
  • Fluency is also a CRITAL ‘checkpoint’
  • Look at number of hesitations
  • Immediate after record, record how reading sounds
  • Use of NAEP fluency rubric

**You will assess fluency in other ways in addition to the record.

all three are used to determine text level
All Three are used to determine text level




levels of reading
Levels of Reading
  • Think about the following levels. Discuss with a partner the accuracy rate, fluency rate and comprehension rate you think would be appropriate for each category:
  • Independent Reading
  • Instructional
  • Frustration
independent reading
Independent Reading
  • level at which students can read a text without assistance
  • 95% - 100% accuracy
instructional level
Instructional Level
  • Students work in small instructional groups with a teacher facilitating.
  • 90% - 94% Accuracy (With comprehension & fluency)
  • This text is too difficult for the child to read and can become frustrating to the child, putting at risk motivation, comprehension and fluency.
  • Under 90% accuracy
what do we expect from our students
What do we Expect from our students?
  • We expect students to acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes required for proficiency in comprehension of text. This is the most important goal of reading instruction.

- J. Torgesen

matching books to readers
Matching Books to Readers
  • Knowing the readers
  • Knowing the texts
  • Understanding the reading process
leveled text1
Leveled Text
  • Review behaviors for the leveled text at your grade level. (see Scholastic handout)
  • As a grade level, determine how these behaviors are taught in whole and small group.
  • Be prepared to share out as whole group.
classroom collection

Read Aloud

Shared Reading

Guided Reading

Independent Reading

(see handout for complete descriptions)

What is the purpose of each?


In small Groups, sort the purposes for each

Classroom Collection
characteristics to consider
Characteristics to Consider…
  • Book and Print Features
          • length, print, layout, punctuation, illustrations
  • Content, Themes, Ideas
          • familiarity, sophistication, complexity
  • Text Structure
          • narrative, Expository
  • Language and Literary Features
          • perspective, language structure, literary devices, vocabulary, words

(see handout)

leveling systems
Leveling Systems
  • There are many!!! Determine what system will be used in your building, and ONLY use one 
  • Examples: Lexiles, DRA, Guided Reading…

(see handout with leveled text info for correlation chart)

what should i expect from my students
What should I expect from my students?
  • Each text level presents the opportunity for students to learn and grow as a reader.
  • In addition to the skills and strategies outlined in your scope and sequence, review the characteristics of leveled text for your grade level, as well as the NYS Literacy Competencies for reading at your grade level.
forming small groups
Forming small groups
  • Step 1 – Begin with your data 
  • What assessments do you currently use? Please note in small group discussion, then we will share out with the group.
additional assessments
Additional Assessments
  • Decoding Survey (see handout)
  • Phonemic Awareness Survey (see handout)
  • Sight Word Assessment
grouping students
Grouping Students
  • Group students according to skill/strategy need.
  • REMEMBER, your goal for small group work is to determine what is the MOST critical skill for each student.
  • MAXIMIZE your students time - using data to inform your instruction.
explicit steps in guided reading
Explicit Steps in Guided Reading
  • Introducing the text
  • Reading the text
  • Revisiting and discussing the meaning of the text
  • Teaching skills or process strategies text
  • Extending the meaning of the text
  • Working with words


planning for guided reading
Planning for Guided Reading
  • Assessments will help guide you t ensure you are addressing individual student needs.
  • Other Resources for grade level material:
    • NYS Literacy Competencies
    • Core Scope and Sequence
    • IDEA Maps
using the nys literacy competencies
Using the NYS Literacy Competencies
  • Identify 3-5 skills/concepts you teach well at your grade level with a star next to each concept.
  • Identify 3-5 skills concepts that are new to you with a ‘?”
  • Think about how these competencies work with your existing curriculum. Note any changes in the ‘classroom application’ column of your process page.
before our next workshop
Before our next workshop-

Reflection Questions:

  • How much time do I spend on reading instruction?
  • Where does reading instruction appear in my schedule?
  • How much reading instruction does each child receive each week? How do I differentiate this?
  • Do I have leveled texts?

Action Steps:

  • Upon reflecting on your lesson delivery, focus on one area to improve (before, during or after reading). Please bring back new strategies you tried, and how this worked for your students.
focus for next session
Focus for next Session
  • Strategy instruction
  • Centers
  • Classroom Management