Welcome to Principles of Guided Reading! As you take your seat, please take a few moments to think about the following questions: • What is your experience in teaching reading? (what does classroom instruction look like?) • What do you hope to gain from this workshop?
Principles of Guided Reading Developed by D. Godsen DePalma Based on the work of Irene Fountas, Gay Su Pinnell, Anita Archer, Michel McKenna, Marie Clay, Joetta Beaver and the Bureau of Education and Research
Objectives for the Day Participants will- • Gain an understanding of the principles of guided reading • View guided reading in action, with a focus on instruction strategies before, during and after reading • Learn new strategies for readers before, during and after reading • Learn and be exposed to a variety of assessments • Acquire essential tools for guided reading
References • There are many! You can find them at : nysrrc.monroe.edu • Reading academy sign up
What is Guided Reading? • Guided reading is an instructional approach that involves a teacher working with a small group of students who demonstrate similar reading behaviors and can all read similar levels of texts. The text is easy enough for students to read with your skillful support. • What knowledge do you need to make this happen? • Knowledge about your students • Knowledge about text • Knowledge about grade level reading skills and goals (where does this information come from?)
What is Guided Reading? • The text offers challenges and opportunities for problem solving, but is easy enough for students to read with some fluency. • You choose selections that help students expand their strategies • What information do you need to make text selections?
What is the purpose of Guided Reading? • Students focus on meaning but use problem-solving strategies to figure out words they don’t know, deal with difficult sentence structure, and understand concepts or ideas they have never before encountered in print. Think about your grade level. What problem solving strategies do you teach? (Decoding, structural, conceptual) What strategies are students at your grade level expected to know?
Why is Guided Reading Important? • Guided reading gives students the chance to apply the strategies they already know to new text. • You provide support, but the ultimate goal is independent reading. • How often do your students read independently? • How do you as a classroom teacher monitor this?
When are children ready for guided reading? • Students are developing readers have already gained important understandings about how print works. • What do students need to know about print at the grade level you teach?
When are children ready for guided reading? • Students know how to monitor their own reading. • What does this look like at the grade level you teach?
When are children ready for guided reading? • Students have the ability to check on themselves or search for possibilities and alternatives if they encounter a problem when reading. • How do your students problem solve when reading? What knowledge does this require?
Teacher Checklist of Academic Resilient Behaviors in Literacy Engagement Eager for reading and writing time Needs only occasional teacher redirection to stay on task Enjoys read-alouds and reacts to the book (nonverbally or verbally) Other evidence: Self-monitoring Recognizes meaning-changing errors and tries to self-correct during oral reading Rereads own writing and can identify parts that may confuse another reader Other evidence: Help-seeking Uses class resources (e.g., dictionary, Internet) for help Asks other students or adults for clarification when confused Other evidence:
Thoughts from M. McKennaGuided Reading and Differentiated Instruction • We want to move children to the point where they decode first and then use context to select the intended meaning of a word. • We do not want to encourage them to predict the word from context and only “sample” its letters to the extent needed to confirm this prediction.
Thoughts from M. McKennaGuided Reading and Differentiated Instruction Guided Reading Differentiated Instruction Fluency is the focus only for grade 1 and above only if decoding skills are strong. In differentiated instruction, the teacher isolates reading components to address deficits. Fluency is always the primary focus. In guided reading, the teacher coordinates reading components (comprehension, word recognition, fluency).
Guided Reading • Is not round robin reading • Is not stagnant grouping • Pay close attention to who guided reading is for
Process Time • What information covered to this point is new to you? • What questions do you have? • How can you apply these principles to the students (teachers) you currently work with refer to handout
Give one, get one… • Using the cards- • Find someone who has a card of different color • Share your quote with them • Listen to their quote • Have a brief discussion agreeing or disagreeing with the quote
Before Reading • Before Reading- research presented by Dr. Anita Archer • The main areas you should focus on when introducing a text are… • Decoding • Vocabulary • Back ground Knowledge • Preview the story/article
Before ReadingFocus- new vocabulary words • Focus on the following video • Use the process page to guide your thinking • Think about the use of • Explicit Instruction • Whole group engagement • Repetition
Before ReadingFocus- Story Structure, Background Knowledge • Anticipation Guide – video clip • Story structure, themes, concepts, background knowledge • Focus on whole group engagement • I’d Rather – video clip • Story concepts, connecting to background knowledge • Focus on whole group engagement
During Reading • During Guided Reading, the classroom Teacher • Listens to students while they ‘whisper read’ or read silently • Coaches students on strategies covered • Takes anecdotal notes and running reading records
Three Levels of Questioning • Right There • Answer directly stated in the text • Author and You • Synthesize text • On your own • Child uses his/her own experiences
During Reading • Video Clip – scaffolded reading • Each child reads • Teacher gives a purpose for reading • Teacher coaches students as they read
Planning is CRITICAL Book knowledge Student knowledge Planning Pages (on moodle)
Asking Questions During Reading • Why do we ask students questions while they read?
After Reading • Discuss the story read • Students respond • Revisit text • Assesses student’s understanding of what they have read • View video clip
Activities for after Reading • Provide intentional fluency building practice. • Engage students in a discussion. • Have students answer written questions. • Provide engaging vocabulary practice. • Have students write summaries of what they have read.
Tools • Engagement Checklist (Reading Teacher) • Observation Page • Planning Page • BOTH ON THE MOODLE!
Assessment • Running Reading Records • DRA • Other supporting assessments
Running Reading Records THE GOAL OF ANY READING PROGRAM SHOULD BE TO HELP STUDENTS BECOME PROFICIENT, ENTHUSIASTIC READERS WHO ENJOY READING FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. - Joetta Beaver
Running Reading Records Overview Guided Practice Scoring and other Considerations D. Godsen 2006
What is a Running Reading Record? Running records provide an assessment of text reading. They are designed to be taken as a child reads orally from a text. The teacher graphically records in a shorthand method everything the child when reading a passage or a book, to gain insight on strategies the student uses effectively and those with which the student needs help. Marie Clay (2002) An Observation Survey pg. 49
Why take Running Reading Records? • Records are taken to guide instruction • Records are taken to assess text difficulty • Records are taken to capture progress Marie Clay, pg. 50 - 51
Notes of Caution • Avoid printed text. This is not realistic in a classroom setting. Also, printed text often will not allow for all of the child’s behavior to be recorded. • Avoid using a tape recorder. Having to tape the assessment can be a crutch, and it limits your ability to record observations of behavior.
How to Take a Running Reading Record • Sit next to the child so you can see the text as the student reads aloud. • Mark the student’s every response on your recording sheet or a blank piece of paper. • Start a new row of recording for each new line on the page. Record page numbers.
Guided Practice You will now have the opportunity to practice recording for each type of error. Refer to handout for coding system.
Correct response a The Giving Tree Shel Silverstein aaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaa aaa
Word Omitted correct word FireFlies -Julie Brinckloe aaaa aaaaa aa aaaaopen
Word Substituted word read correct word Something Beautiful aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaa aaajumpingaaSarah jump Sybil aaaaaa aaaaaaa
Words Inserted word read Angelina and Alice - Katharine Holabird aaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaand cried
How often do I take RRR? • Take records of emerging readers every 2 - 4 weeks. Take one more often with students who are not making expected gains. • Take records of each progressing and transitional readers every 4-6 weeks and more often with students not making expected gains. • Take records of each fluent reader quarterly and more often with any students who begin to experience difficulty reading.
Partner Practice • You will now be given the opportunity to practice recording records with a partner. • One person will read the provided text WITH ERRORS while the other records.
Overview of the DRA • Authentic reading assessment for K-8 students. • Assesses: • comprehension • oral reading fluency • accuracy
DRA Enables teachers to: • Determine a reader’s independent assessment level • Confirm or redirect ongoing reading instruction • Group students effectively for reading experiences and instruction • Identify students who may be working below proficiency and need further assessments
DRA Components Teacher Resource Guide • Provides an overview of the assessment • Gives directions for administering the assessment • Includes information for analyzing the information gathered • Shows how to report student progress
Scoring a Running Record • There are 3 points to be taken into consideration when scoring a record.
1. Accuracy Rate • To gain a percentage score on words read • Take the total number of words read, subtract the number of miscues, and divide by the total number of words. Words read – miscues total words 100 – 10 100 = 90 %
2. Comprehension • Comprehension is a CRITICAL ‘checkpoint’ to consider during a RRR • Retelling • DRA comprehension rubric ** You will assess comprehension in other ways in addition to the record.
3. Fluency • Fluency is also a CRITAL ‘checkpoint’ • Look at number of hesitations • Immediate after record, record how reading sounds • Use of NAEP fluency rubric **You will assess fluency in other ways in addition to the record.