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Final Exam Study Guide. Radiocarbon dating. __________________________ Method used to determine the age of artifacts. __________________________ Wise, wise human beings. _______________________________ cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, and art.

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Final exam study guide

Radiocarbon dating

  • __________________________ Method used to determine the age of artifacts.

  • __________________________ Wise, wise human beings.

  • _______________________________ cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, and art.

  • ________________ study of human life and culture.

  • ________________ the period before writing was developed

Homo sapiens, sapiens

Basic Characteristics of Civilization



Final exam study guide



  • _______________ A government by divine authority.

  • _______________ in ancient Mesopotamia, farming resulted in an abundance of food which allowed this to emerge.

  • _______________ remembered for his law code, a collection of laws for Mesopotamian society.

  • _______________ invented by the Sumerians

  • _____________________ The importance of this alphabet is that it is the basis for the English alphabet.



Phoenician Alphabet

Final exam study guide


  • _________________ differed from the other religions of the time in that it was monotheistic, meaning its followers believed in one God, whereas other religions were polytheistic, meaning their followers believed in many gods.

  • _____________________ Geographic feature that is common to the 4 earliest civilizations.

  • ___________________ ruled for 800 years it is the longest lasting dynasty in China.

  • ______________________ Founder of Buddhism.

  • _________________ a trade route between the Roman Empire and China that ran through India’s Kushan Kingdom.

Rivers or waterways

Zhou Dynasty

Siddhartha Gautama

Silk Road

Final exam study guide

Dark Ages

  • _______________ Period after the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization.

  • _______________ The religious center of a Greek city-state was often in a fortified area

  • _______________ chief god and father of the gods.

  • _______________ an organized system of thought.

  • _______________ the first Greek city-state.





Final exam study guide


Alexander the Great

  • ________________ the type of government that Sparta had, means “rule by a few”

  • ________________________ His conquests led to the Hellenistic Era, an age that saw the expansion of the Greek language and Greek ideas to the non-Greek world.

  • __________________ This astronomer determined that the world was round and measured the earth’s circumference relatively close to its actual size.

  • _______________ Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey

  • _______________ He wrote the History of the Persian Wars which is widely considered the first real history in western civilization.


Epic Poem


Final exam study guide


  • ________________ This group became the governing body of the Roman state by the end of the 2nd century B.C.

  • ________________ His teachings became a movement called Christianity; He won followers in Jerusalem, Judaea, Galilee, and the Roman Empire.

  • ________________ in charge of enforcing civil law.

  • ________________ a form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote.

  • ________________ a period of peace and prosperity that lasted for almost 200 years.





Final exam study guide


  • _________________ Became the first Christian Emperor.

  • _________________ first invaders to sack Rome.

  • _________________ was made up of Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey.

  • _________________ gave free grain and provided entertainment on a grand scale to keep the poverty-stricken masses pacified.

  • ______________________ adopted Christianity as official religion of the Roman Empire.


First Triumvirate

The Emperor

Theodosius the Great

Final exam study guide

Caravan Manager


  • _____________________ Muhammad’s profession when he received his revelations

  • _________________ he began to meditate in the hills because he became troubled by the gap between the honesty of most Makkans and the greediness of trading elites in the city.

  • _________________ drawn up by Muslin scholars after Muhammad’s death, it was a a law code that provides believers with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives.

  • _________________ led a revolt in the early Umayyad period which led to the split of Islam into two groups, the Shia Muslims and the Sunni Muslims.

  • ___________________________ for Muslims, obeying Allah’s will means following with this.



The Five Pillars of Islam

Final exam study guide

Struggle in the way of God

  • ______________________________ According to the Quran, fair, defensive warfare is a jihad, which means this.

  • ______________ a Muslim scholar and scientist wrote a medical encyclopedia which was translated into Latin and became a basic textbook in Europe.

  • __________________ reason that knights needed a very large horse.

  • ___________________ founded a community of monks that established the basic form of monasticism in the Catholic Church.


To carry armor

Saint Benedict

Final exam study guide

Carolingian Renaissance

  • _________________________ a revival of learning and culture

  • ____________________ most important gift a lord could give his vassal.

  • ______________ a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold.

  • ________________________ invaded England and soundly defeated King Harold and his foot soldiers at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

  • ________________ a document that eventually was used to strengthen the idea that a king’s power was limited, not absolute.

A piece of land


William of Normandy

Magna Carta

Final exam study guide



  • ___________ He led the Muslim forces to retake Jerusalem from the crusaders

  • ____________ at the heart is vassalage, which meant warriors swore loyalty to a lord, who in turn took care of their needs.

  • _______________ resulted in the loss of political power for the Catholic Church.

  • __________ Different from peasants because they were legally bound to the land.

  • ______________ brought a turning point for France in the Hundred Years’ War because of her faith.

Great Schism


Joan of Arc

Final exam study guide

The Inquisition

The Black Death

  • _________________ the court created by the Catholic Church to find and try heretics.

  • _________________ killed nearly 38 million which led to severe economic consequences

  • _________________ associated with Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo.

  • _________________ The Flemish painter Jan van Eyck was one of the first to use and perfect this technique.

  • ________________ the first Protestant Faith.

  • _______________________ formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany.

High Renaissance

Oil painting


Peace of Augsburg

Final exam study guide

The Canterbury Tales

  • _______________________ written by Chaucer, this work is important because of Chaucer’s use of the English vernacular was important in making his dialect the chief ancestor of the modern English language.

  • ________________________ believed he had discovered a westward passage to Asia, when in fact he had actually discovered the Americas

  • ___________________ known to Europeans as the Spice Islands.

  • ________________________ established a line of demarcation between territories controlled by Portugal and those controlled by Spain

Christopher Columbus

The Moluccas

Treaty of Tordesillas

Final exam study guide

Middle Passage


  • __________________ the journey of enslaved people from Africa to America

  • __________________ this African society was changed from a brilliant society to a corrupt and brutal place by the slave trade.

  • ____________________ remembered as the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe.

  • ______________________ James I of England believed in the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God which is called this.

  • ________________ laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England.

Ferdinand Magellan

Divine Right of Kings

Bill of Rights

Final exam study guide


Glorious Revolution

  • ________________ a system of government in which a ruler holds total power.

  • _______________________ the invasion of England by William of Orange, who overthrew James II with almost no bloodshed

  • ________________ his ideas are found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.

  • ________________________ empires that were formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions they conquered.

  • _______________________ was the first to argue that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of the universe

John Locke

Gunpowder empires

Nicholas Copernicus

Final exam study guide


  • ______________ His coup d’état overthrew the directory to establish his consulate

  • ___________________________________ the two major reasons that Napoleon’s Grand Empire collapsed

  • ______________________The Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon here

  • _________________ the country where the Industrial Revolution began.

Survival of Great Britain and Nationalism

Waterloo in Belgium

Great Britain

Final exam study guide

Charles Dickens

  • ____________________ in his novels, he showed the realities of life of the poor in the early part of the Industrial Age.

  • ________________ one of the first industries to be affected by the Industrial Revolution.

  • ________________ developed the steam engine that could drive machinery.

  • ________________ proposed the germ theory of disease

  • _____________________________________ led way to new industrial frontiers.

Cotton cloth

James Watt

Louis Pasteur

steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum

Final exam study guide


  • ________________ the working class, who according to Karl Marx, was oppressed by the middle class.

  • ________________ the alliance between Great Britain, Russia, and France (before WWI)

  • ___________________ sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901

  • _____________ and ___________ only two free states in Africa by 1914

  • _____________________ the concession demanded by President Wilson at the Paris peace conference.

Triple Entente

Guglielmo Marconi



League of Nations

Final exam study guide

Western Front

  • ___________________ characterized by trench warfare that kept both sides in virtually the same position for four years.

  • ___________________ Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire became known as this.

  • ___________________ clause in the Treaty of Versailles that Germany disliked because it forced them to take responsibility for starting World War I.

  • __________________________________ German’s use of this caused the United States to join the allies in fighting World War I.

  • ___________________ under his leadership, the Bolsheviks became a party dedicated to violent revolution.

Central Powers

War guilt Clause

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

V. I. Lenin

Final exam study guide

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

Mobilization of troops

  • _________________________ his assassination was the spark that ignited World War I

  • _________________________ considered an act of war

  • _________________________ Germany’s plan for a two-front war with Russia and France, which had formed a military alliance.

  • ____________________________ The German advance toward Paris was halted here

  • ________________________ guaranteed Germany’s new western borders with France and Belgium.

Schlieffen Plan

The First Battle of the Marne

Treaty of Locarno

Final exam study guide

League of Nations

Totalitarian State

  • ___________________________ the United States helped contributed to the failure of this organization when they did not join.

  • ___________________________ a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens

  • ___________________________ a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment.

  • ___________________________ This plan helped Germany control its runaway inflation which reduced Germany’s reparation debt. It was created by an international commission.

  • ___________________________ allowed Hitler to establish a totalitarian state by giving the government the power to ignore the constitution for four years.


Dawes Plan

Enabling Act

Final exam study guide


Heinrich Himmler

  • _____________________ a destructive Nazi rampage against the Jews.

  • ____________________ directed the Nazi secret forces

  • ___________________ glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler.

  • _____________________ led the Spanish military in a revolt against the democratic government

  • ________________________________________ a factor in leading the German’s to accept Hitler and the Nazis was their belief that Hitler ended this.


Francisco Franco

He ended Germany’s economic depression

Final exam study guide

Nuremberg Laws

  • __________________________ They excluded Jews from German citizenship and forbade marriages between Jews and Germans.

  • __________________________ Hitler demanded, and was given, this area in northwestern Czechoslovakia

  • __________________________ After Hitler’s invasion of this country, Britain and France declared war on Germany.

  • __________________________ “Lightening War” or a form of attack that used tank divisions supported by air attacks.




Final exam study guide


  • _______________________launched a surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941,

  • _______________________ Great Britain had this prewar policy toward Germany which was based on the belief that the satisfaction of reasonable demands would maintain peace in Europe.

  • _______________________ this battle was a crushing defeat for Germany because the entire 6th army, which was considered Germany’s best, was lost

  • _______________________ the period of political tension following World War II.

  • _______________________ At this conference, the allies agreed to the establishment of a United Nations organization after the war.



Cold War

Yalta Conference

Final exam study guide


  • ________________ The slaughter of European Jews by the Nazis became known as what

  • ________________ a book written by Adolf Hitler while he was in prison.

  • ____________________ Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill decided to make a final assault on postwar Germany.

  • _________________ This was built in order to prevent East Germans from defecting to West Germany.

Mein Kampf

Tehran Conference

Berlin Wall