Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide. All the hard stuff by Kevin Zhang Jazzer uppers were Mason Wewer and Nikos Haralabidis. 1) Define/ units/ tools for:.

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Final Exam Study Guide

All the hard stuff by Kevin Zhang

Jazzer uppers were Mason Wewer and Nikos Haralabidis

1) Define/ units/ tools for:
• Mass- How much matter an object contains. Some units are grams and kilograms. Some tools to measure mass are balance scales and a triple beam balance.
• Length- The distance from one point to another. Units in the customary system are inches, feet, yards, and miles. In the metric system, meters, centimeters, millimeters, and kilometers. Some tools to use are yardstick, ruler, meter stick.
• Volume- The amount of space a three dimensional object occupies. Measured in cubic units, some tools are a graduated cylinder, a ruler, and a beaker.
• Density- Mass divided by volume. Some units are grams per a cubic meter, and kilograms per a cubic inch. Some tools are a scale and a graduated cylinder.
2) What is Pressure?
• Amount of force applied on a certain area.
3) What does our atmosphere do for us?
• It keeps heat from escaping, keeps a moderate temperature for us to have liquid water, and protects us from UV radiation.
4) What is our atmosphere made of?
• 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 0.9% Argon, 0.03% of Carbon Dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases.
5) What are the layers of the atmosphere?
• Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Exosphere.
7) What is temperature?
• Measure of the movement of the molecules. (Kinetic Energy)
• As altitude increases, pressure and temperature decrease except for in the stratosphere and thermosphere. In these layers, temperature increases as altitude increases.
9) Know the definitions and examples of convection, conduction, and radiation.
• Convection- Transfer of heat through differences of density. ( Convection Currents in the mantle.)
• Conduction- Transfer of heat through direct contact. (Touching a frying pan.)
• Radiation- Transfer of heat through empty space. (Our sun.)
10) How is our atmosphere heated?
• UV radiation from the sun.
11) What causes winds?
• Differences in air pressure.
12) What causes weather?
• Uneven heating of the Earth.
13) Describe sea and land breezes.
• Land- Occurs at day, the sand is hotter than the water, so the wind blows into your face.
• Sea- Occurs at night, the water cools slower than the sand, so it is hotter. The wind is at your back.
14) Describe stratus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds.
• Stratus- Low, layered clouds, may make a light drizzle or snow.
• Cumulus- Medium altitude, puffy, can bring either fair weather or thunderstorms.
• Cirrus- High, curly clouds that may produce strong winds and thunderstorms.
15) Know the rating scales for hurricanes and tornadoes.
• Fujita- Tornado, measures in terms of damage and wind speed. (F6= Inconceivable Tornado, F0= Weak Tornado.)
• Saffir-Simpson- Hurricane, rates in categories and measured in terms of damage and wind speed. (Category 5= Strongest, Category 1= Weakest.)
16) Describe the differences between warm and cold fronts.
• A warm front is when a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet, the warm air slips over the cold air, replacing the cold air. This can cause slight drizzles of rain and clear skies following the front.
• A cold front is when a cold air mass and a warm air mass meet. The cold air slips under the warm air, thus replacing the warm air. This can cause thunderstorms and violent weather.
17) Describe Lunar and Solar eclipses.
• Lunar- Earth’s shadow covers up the Moon.
• Solar- The Moon’s shadow covers up the Sun.
18) Describe Neap and Spring tides.
• Neap tides are the lowest tides and happen during the first and third quarters of the moon.
• Spring tides are the highest tides and happen during the new and full moon.
19) Know basic moon facts.
• The Moon has no atmosphere, the time it takes to revolve around Earth and rotate on its axis takes 27.3 days, has craters from meteoroid impacts.
20) Know basic facts about the nine planets
• Mercury- No moon, rocky surface, Greek name is Hermes.
• Venus- about the same size as Earth, greenhouse effect, no moons, Greek name is Aphrodite.
• Earth- Only planet with liquid water and life, our home planet, has one moon, Greek name is Gaea.
• Mars- Might have had liquid water a very long time ago, surface has lots of iron, has 2 moons, Greek name is Ares.
• Jupiter- Giant red spot is a storm system, biggest planet, has one single ring, Greek name is Zeus.
• Saturn- Second largest planet, has many rings made of ice, rock, and dust, Greek name is Cronos.
• Uranus- Rotates on its side, has rings, Greek name is Ouranos.
• Neptune- Has rings, lots of ice, Greek name is Poseidon.
• Pluto- Smallest planet, only outer planet that is not a gas giant, now a dwarf planet, Greek name is Hades.
21) What are constellations?
• Groups of stars that make a pattern and usually have a myth involved
23) Describe how stars are formed.
• A cloud of dust and gas form, called a nebula. The nebula contracts from gravity, making the nebula dense enough to be a star.
24) What is the difference between absolute magnitude and apparent magnitude?
• Absolute- What the star’s brightness really is.
• Apparent- What the star’s brightness appears to be in the night sky.
25) What does the color of the star tell us?
• The temperature and which stage it is in.
26) What is the “Big Bang?”
• The theory that states how the universe was formed. A big explosion occurred, sending mass and material outward, which will later form everything.