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Chapter Sixteen The Eighteen Century: From Rococo to Revolution. ••• Culture and Values, 6 th Ed. Cunningham and Reich. Age of Diversity. Unqualified optimism, extreme discontent Conscious engagement with social issues Revolutionaries and conservatives Enlightened despots

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chapter sixteen the eighteen century from rococo to revolution

Chapter SixteenThe Eighteen Century:From Rococo to Revolution

•••

Culture and Values, 6th Ed.

Cunningham and Reich

age of diversity
Age of Diversity
  • Unqualified optimism, extreme discontent
  • Conscious engagement with social issues
  • Revolutionaries and conservatives
  • Enlightened despots
    • Welfare of citizenry
    • Duty and responsibility
the visual arts in the eighteenth century the rococo style
The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth CenturyThe Rococo Style
  • Escapism, antibaroque
    • Frivolity, lightheartedness
    • Art as entertainment for aristocracy
  • Jean Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)
    • Fetes galantes
    • Return from Cythera (1717)
the visual arts in the eighteenth century the rococo style1
The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth CenturyThe Rococo Style
  • François Boucher (1703-1770)
    • Eroticism, voluptuous beauty (Rubens)
    • Cupid a Captive (1754)
  • Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806)
    • Use of landscape
    • Love Letters (1773)
the visual arts in the eighteenth century the rococo style2
The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth CenturyThe Rococo Style
  • Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757)
    • Pastel portraits
    • Anna Sofia d’Este (c. 1730)
  • Portraiture and English nobility
  • Rococo sculpture
  • Rococo architecture
    • Balthazar Neumann (1687-1753)
the visual arts in the eighteenth century neo classical art
The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth CenturyNeo-Classical Art
  • Archeological inspiration
    • New awareness of classical art
  • Roman Republic, French Revolution
    • Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)
    • United opposition to tyranny
  • Austere poses, orderly decoration
    • Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)
the visual arts in the eighteenth century neo classical art1
The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth CenturyNeo-Classical Art
  • Escapism vs. Idealism
  • William Hogarth
    • Satirical “moral subjects”
  • Sculptural quality
  • Classical models of architecture
    • Austere public buildings
    • Thomas Jefferson’s State Capitol
classical music
Classical Music
  • Style gallant
  • Empfindsamkeit
    • C.P.E. Bach (1714-8)
  • General vs. Technical definitions
  • New musical idiom
    • Emotion, intellect, balance, order
classical music the classical symphony
Classical Music:The Classical Symphony
  • Orchestral standardization

Symphonic movements

  • Sonata form, sonata allegro form
    • Exposition, development, recapitulation
  • Slow, lyrical movement
  • Minuet
  • Spirited, cheerful conclusion
classical music haydn and mozart
Classical Music:Haydn and Mozart
  • Franz Joseph Haydn
    • “Father of the Symphony”
    • Reverence of artist in society
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Early musical prowess, virtuosity
    • The Marriage of Figaro
    • Social injustice, universality of human nature
literature in the eighteenth century intellectual developments
Literature in the Eighteenth CenturyIntellectual Developments
  • Systematic examination of society
    • Pessimistic views vs. Optimistic views
  • Renewed interest in Classical culture
    • Translations, themes, forms, references
  • English Augustan movement
    • Imitated Roman Augustan poets
    • Return to order after English Civil War
literature in the eighteenth century alexander pope 1688 1744
Literature in the Eighteenth CenturyAlexander Pope (1688-1744)
  • Augustan poet
  • Nature of human experience
  • Rococo satire
    • Tinged with personal hostility
  • Christian + Humanist teachings
    • Revelation of human folly
    • Reverence for order, reason
literature in the eighteenth century jonathan swift 1667 1745
Literature in the Eighteenth CenturyJonathan Swift (1667-1745)
  • Hatred for human race
  • “Savage indignation”
    • Animals capable of reason
  • Gulliver’s Travels
    • Satire of human behavior
  • A Modest Proposal
    • “Man’s inhumanity to man”
    • Inevitability of human suffering
literature in the eighteenth century rational humanism the encyclopedists
Literature in the Eighteenth CenturyRational Humanism: The Encyclopedists
  • Encyclopédie
    • Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
    • System for the classification of knowledge
    • Compendium of human rationality
    • Freedom of conscience and belief
literature in the eighteenth century rational humanism the encyclopedists1
Literature in the Eighteenth CenturyRational Humanism: The Encyclopedists
  • Charles-Louis Montesquieu (1689-1755)
    • Distribution of governmental power
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
    • Humans=good, society=bad
    • The “noble savage”
    • Contempt for superficial, artificial
    • Belief in human equality
literature in the eighteenth century voltaire 1694 1778
Literature in the Eighteenth CenturyVoltaire (1694-1778)
  • A man engagé
  • Importance of freedom of thought
  • “Ecrasez l’infame”
    • Fanaticism and persecution
  • Natural religion, morality
  • Candide (1759)
    • Folly of unreasonable optimism
    • Cruelty and stupidity of the human race
the late eighteenth century time of revolution
The Late Eighteenth Century:Time of Revolution
  • Technological improvements
  • Increased literacy, circulation of ideas
  • Governmental abuses
    • Louis XV: “Après moi le déluge”
  • The Reign of Terror
    • Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794)
    • Essentiality of constitutional government
the late eighteenth century time of revolution1
The Late Eighteenth Century:Time of Revolution
  • American Revolution
    • Inspired revolution in France
  • Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence
    • Optimistic view
    • Political and social freedom
    • Equality and justice
    • Universality of man and nature
chapter sixteen discussion questions
Chapter Sixteen: Discussion Questions
  • Explain Jonathan Swift’s “savage indignation.” Why does he hold such contempt for the human race? What is meant by the statement, “[reason] aggravates man’s natural corruptions”? How is this similar to and/or different from Rousseau’s outlook on humanity?
  • What philosophical view of humanity was generated by the Encyclopedists? Explain how a collection of knowledge lead to new insights into religion, humanity, society, and government.
  • In what ways does the rococo style support both the optimistic AND the pessimistic worldviews of the eighteenth century? Consider the influx of satire and the comparative frivolity of the art in addition to the changing role of the artist during the period.