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BIOMES

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  1. BIOMES Summary of the 8 Terrestrial Biomes

  2. BOREAL FOREST (Largest Biome in the World)

  3. BOREAL FOREST

  4. WHERE? • Northern Hemisphere (45 – 65° N) • FEATURES: • Very cold winters • Rainy, humid summers (short) • Rough terrain • CLIMATE • Precipitation = 30 to 85 cm/yr (snow) • Temp = freezing ½ the year (lows -40°C) BOREAL FOREST Russian Boreal Forest

  5. WHO LIVES HERE? Animals are able to adapt for warm summers and cool winters; thick fur, change from brown to winter white, reptiles are rare. • Insect-eating birds (finch), chipmunk, shrew, moose, black and grizzly bears, wolverine • PLANT LIFE: • Coniferous trees (evergreens) Waxy needles (resist water loss, snow slides off). BOREAL FOREST

  6. TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST

  7. TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST

  8. WHERE? • Eastern Canada/US, • Western Europe • FEATURES: • 4 distinct seasons • Long growing season • Rich soil (fallen leaves) • CLIMATE • Precipitation = even throughout year (75 -180 cm) • Temp = -30 to 30°C TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST

  9. WHO LIVES HERE? A large variety due to the abundance of various habitats. Some hibernate, others migrate during winter. • Rabbits, squirrels, skunks, cougars, deer, wolves, bears... • PLANT LIFE: • Four to five layers (mosses -> berries -> shrubs -> short trees -> deciduous trees) Deciduous trees (Maple, Oak, Birch) – lose leaves in fall. TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST

  10. TEMPERATE RAINFOREST

  11. TEMPERATE RAINFOREST

  12. WHERE? • Coastal BC, New Zealand, Australia, coast of Chile • FEATURES: • Along coastlines, backed by mountains • Very tall trees (up to 60m) • CLIMATE • Heavy rainfall (>200 cm/yr) • Coastal fog • Temp = 5 to 25°C Temperate Rainforest

  13. WHO LIVES HERE? Many animals live on forest floor where they are protected from wind and rain. Eat seeds and insects. • Small mammals (chipmunks), birds (eagle), amphibians, bears... • PLANT LIFE: • Tall, large evergreens (due to rain) • Mosses and lichens on tree trunks to reach light. Mosses, fungi on forest floor Temperate Rainforest

  14. TROPICAL RAINFOREST

  15. TROPICAL RAINFOREST

  16. WHERE? • Along the equator: Northern South America, Central Africa, Southeast Asia, Central America • FEATURES: • Poor soil (heavy rains wash nutrients away) • Dark forest floor • CLIMATE • Heavy rainfall (>250 cm/yr) • Warm temp = 20 to 25 °C Tropical Rainforest

  17. WHO LIVES HERE? Large diversity but not many large mammals. Most animals live in trees as little vegetation on ground. Most are specialists to decrease competition. Some secrete poison. • Small animals, few large mammals, birds (toucan, parrots), insects... Poison arrow frog • This biome has the greatest diversity of animals on Earth Tropical Rainforest

  18. PLANT LIFE: • This biome also has the greatest plant diversity • Leaves have narrow tips so rain runs off • Tall trees form a canopy and block the light • Some plants grow on the tall trees to reach the sunlight (vines and orchids) • Shrubs adapted to low light can grow in the forest floor Tropical Rainforest Jambu Bengal Bamboo

  19. GRASSLANDS

  20. GRASSLANDS

  21. WHERE? • Temperate (Prairies, Russia) • Tropical (Africa, S America, N Australia) • FEATURES: • Flat, rich fertile soil • Rain followed by long dry periods • Grass fires can occur • CLIMATE • Rainfall = 25 to 100 cm/yr (Temp) 50 to 130 cm/yr (Trop) • Temp = -10 to 30°C (Temp) 20 to 30°C (Trop) GRASSLANDS

  22. WHO LIVES HERE? Grazing and scavenging animals – lots of grass • Large grazing animals (antelope, giraffes, zebras, wolves, coyotes, rabbits, snakes, lions, cheetahs...) • PLANT LIFE: • Grasses (adapted for drought; well developed roots – collect water, grow after fire); flexible stalks don’t break in wind). Some grasses are sharp & taste bad. • Few trees GRASSLANDS

  23. DESERT

  24. DESERT

  25. WHERE? • Kalahari and Sahara of Africa, • Simpson of Australia...Cold deserts in North America (Great Basin Desert), Argentina (Patagonian Desert) • FEATURES: • Hot, dry • Salty soil (minerals don’t get washed away) • CLIMATE • Rainfall = < 25 cm/yr • Temp = hot days, cold nights DESERT

  26. WHO LIVES HERE? Thick skin and scales to prevent water loss. Large adapted excretory systems (to preserve water). Large extremities. Not active during day (heat) , busy at night (cold) -- some burrow. • Reptiles, scorpions, desert spadefoot toads, lizards, foxes, coyotes, jackrabbits... • PLANT LIFE: few species • Cacti, sagebrush • Long roots help absorb water • Spines/ chemicals help protect from being eaten DESERT

  27. THE TUNDRA

  28. TUNDRA

  29. WHERE? • Upper Northern Hemisphere (60 – 70° N) • FEATURES: • Cold and dark • Short Summers (24 hrs of daylight) • Layer of permanently frozen soil (permafrost) • CLIMATE • Precipitation = less than 25 cm/yr • Summer temp = 3 to 12 °C • Winter temp = -20 to - 30 °C TUNDRA

  30. WHO LIVES HERE? For animals to prevent heat loss, they have small bodies and shorter legs and ears (less space to lose heat from the body). They grow slowly and reproduce infrequently (less energy). Some turn white for camoflauge. Lots migrate away during winter. • Foxes, caribou, snowy owl, seals, walrus, polar bear, walrus, beluga whale... • PLANT LIFE: • No trees (short summer, permafrost) • Plants grow close to ground: mosses, lichens, grasses. TUNDRA

  31. Teachers' Domain: Arctic Tundra

  32. PERMANENT ICE (POLAR)

  33. PERMANENT ICE (POLAR)

  34. WHERE? • Polar ice caps of Arctic, Greenland, Antarctica • FEATURES: • Strong winds, little soil • Most freshwater is frozen in ice • CLIMATE • Precipitation = <50 cm/yr (snow) • Summer temp = up to 14 °C (Arctic summer) • Winter temp = down to -30 °C (As low as -89 °C in Antarctica) Permanent Ice

  35. WHO LIVES HERE? Large terrestrial and marine mammals with lots of fat layers and tightly packed feathers to prevent heat loss. Some have fur and some lie close together (walrus/seal) • Polar bears, walruses, seals, arctic foxes, penguins, leopard seals. • PLANT LIFE: • Lichens (fungi + algae) • Moss • 100 species of flowering plants in Arctic Permanent Ice